A second hypothesis was that results from this coupled modeling approach can inform a health-based benchmark for Pb in drinking water considering a multimedia risk cup approach (a conceptual approach for estimating total Pb exposures and risks, aggregated from different sources), and provide a better understanding of the relative importance of exposure pathways
and data needs to guide public health decisions for reducing childhood Pb risks.
This requires an in-depth understanding of the major health risks and exposure pathways
in order to make relevant risk management decisions for different wastewater use situations.
Dietary intake is, according to our analysis, the dominant exposure pathway
, but dietary intake estimates were determined only once (in 2005) (FSANZ 2007).
Six publications evaluated the impact of specific tasks on the paraoccupational exposure pathway
MDH concluded that there were no complete exposure pathways
and, consequently, that there was no immediate threat to public health (7,8).
In vitro bioaccessibility assessments (IVBA) were performed on a subset of processed ores, soils, and sweep samples to model toxicant bioaccessibility and bioavailability along ingestion exposure pathways
(Drexler and Brattin 2007; Morman et al.
The exposure pathway
analysis shown in Table 3 reveals the source of exposure as the solid waste in the uncovered landfill.
The exposure pathways
of interest were inhalation of vapor, inhalation of particles, dermal sorption of DEHP, and oral ingestion of household dust.
Effectively managing MeHg risks therefore requires information on the exposure pathway
at both local and global scales.
The importance of dust ingestion as an exposure pathway
is emphasized by the significant correlation between exposure to HBCDs via dust ingestion and its concentration in serum.
Important goals for near-term biomarker research must include systematic efforts across a broad range of chemical substances to determine the reliability of biomarkers to infer the source and exposure pathway
in cumulative risk assessments.
Impacted areas to be reinstated with capillary break, gravel and geomembrane layer at base and capped with clean imported material to meet defined human health and quality standards, preventing exposure pathways
by installing a subsurface physical barrier system for the purposes of removing human health risks posed by shallow soils in garden areas of these dwellings.