Expectation of life at birth
is between 15 and 20 years less than that of the nonindigenous population, comparing unfavorably with populations in Canada, the United States, and New Zealand, where life expectancy in indigenous peoples is between three and nine years less than that of the overall population.
The expectation of life at birth is the average duration of life that would be experienced in a hypothetical collection of persons, who from birth until all are extinct are subject to a specified set of death rates by age.
At the time infant mortality was still high, and the expectation of life at birth still low.
In Figure 3, the transition in fertility and mortality in two European countries is represented by a series of dated combinations of total fertility rate and expectation of life at birth.
The increase in expectation of life at birth has slowed because of the absence, in the second category of the LDC mortality experience, of basic changes in the environment and the sanitary habits of the population.