These compounds are formed to a greater extent in the presence of a nitrosatable compound if nitrite concentration is high (Choi 1985); and when combined with higher nitrite, nitrosatable compounds have been reported to be more strongly associated with exencephaly
and skeletal malformations in mice (Teramoto et al.
1998) as well as fetal exencephaly (Lane and Gardner, 1994).
Increase in postimplantation development of cultured mouse embryos by amino acids and induction of fetal retardation and exencephaly by ammonium ions.
in the mouse and associated lesions occurring during neurulation.
The prenatal record was not available, but the patient's mother gave a history of an abnormal prenatal ultrasound showing exencephaly.
Exencephaly (differential diagnosis includes acrania, acalvaria, anencephaly, large encephalocele or amniotic band syndrome.
Animal studies have shown that clomiphene administration before ovulation leads to an increased risk of exencephaly
Significant increases in the incidences' of exencephaly
, ablepharia, and anomalies of the vertebral centra, sternebrae, and ribs were also caused by PAD pretreatment.
99-106) reported on the finding that a seven-week-old aborted embryo presented infoldings of the hemispheric neuroepithelium, cranioschisis, exencephaly
and excessive vascularity with endothelial proliferation --in short, severe malformation of the brain.
This stage in the evolution of anencephaly is known as exencephaly
Many other associations have been found with pentalogy of Cantrell, which include the following: Amniotic band syndrome with limb anomalies, structural cardiac defects with pericardial effusion, exencephaly
, cystic hygroma, infraumbilical defects with cloacal and bladder exstrophy, and bilateral inguinal hernias.
The supposed actin dependency of anterior but not posterior neuropore closure in mouse embryos (Ybot-Gonzalez and Copp 1999) could thus explain why exencephaly
is the dominant NTD observed in VPA-exposed mice (Nau et al.