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Psychiatry A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by progressive mental disturbances in thought, perception, affect, behavior, and communication that last longer than 6 months, which may be accompanied by psychotic Sx, bizarre behavior, or by negative–deficit Sx, including low levels of emotional arousal, mental activity, and social drive; schizophrenia is a diagnosis of exclusion–none of its clinical, biochemical, neuroradiologic, pathophysiologic, and psychologic features are sufficient to establish a definitive diagnosis DSM-IV Clinical Disordered thought processes and abnormal behavior–eg, hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, inappropriate or "blunted" affect, verbal incoherence, cognitive deficits, inappropriate or blunted affect Types Catatonic, paranoid, disorganized, undifferentiated, residual Management Antipsychotics are used to
1. ↓ hallucinations and delusions, and other thought disturbances and improve Sx of withdrawal and apathy.
2. Control Sx through maintenance therapy, and.
3. As long-term prophylaxis, neuroleptics include haloperidol and clozapine  See Cultural schizophrenia, Disorganized schizophrenia, Fugue, Multiple personality, Paranoid schizophrenia. Cf Schizoid personality disorder.
Schizophrenia-diagnostic criteria1
A Characteristic Sx: 2 or more2 of following, for a significant portion of 1+ months
 Disorganized (or catatonic) behavior
 Disorganized speech (incoherence)
 Negative symptoms, eg flattening of affect, loss of volition
B Social/occupational dysfunction  
C Duration 6+ months in duration with 1+ months of 'active' symptoms, defined by criteria A
Exclusions Symptoms are not better accounted for by
D Other mental disorders, eg Schizoaffective disorder or Mood disorder with psychotic features
E Other conditions, eg substances(medication, substance of abuse) and/or general medical conditions  
1Modified from Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed, Washington, DC, Am Psychiatric Assn, 1994
2Only one of criteria A is required if the delusions are bizarre, or hallucinations include 1 + 'voices in head'


n.pl the dental services not covered under a dental benefits program.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ceccarini recently said taxpayers are assessed 45 cents per $1,000 of property valuation annually for that 2000 debt exclusion.
In fact, a single gift to a trust can qualify for as many annual exclusions as there are trust beneficiaries.
Secondary exclusions in Hartlepool were up from 19 to 22.
The article also confuses incidents of exclusion with actual numbers of pupils involved because one child can be excluded a number of times.
For example, in Hong Kong, the maximum housing exclusion for 2006 will rise from $11,536 to $114,300; for London, the maximum housing exclusion for 2006 will be $72,100.
To qualify for the earned income exclusion, an individual must have a tax home (that is, "the general area of a main place of business, employment or post of duty" regardless of the location of the family home) in a foreign country and must be (1) a U.
However, California law forbids such waivers or exclusions.
Exclusions for terrorist attacks soon appeared in policies for even owners of multi-family and single-family homes far from probable terrorist targets.
A concern with the latter would result in a focus upon homelessness or other situations in which households fail to secure adequate accommodation (such as exclusions from social housing).
Other proposals include removing the automatic requirement for a governing body's pupil discipline committees to meet for exclusions of six to 15days.
insurance companies would respond to the new risk of terrorism were answered in November 2001 when the Insurance Services Office filed terrorism exclusions to be used by their member companies on property and casualty insurance policies.
Gaskin, Chairman of the Consuming Industries Trade Action Coalition Steel Task Force (CITAC STF), stated that exclusions will benefit some steel consumers but warned that the exclusion process has failed to solve the primary concern for the majority of small- and medium-sized steel-consuming businesses in the U.