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Psychiatry A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by progressive mental disturbances in thought, perception, affect, behavior, and communication that last longer than 6 months, which may be accompanied by psychotic Sx, bizarre behavior, or by negative–deficit Sx, including low levels of emotional arousal, mental activity, and social drive; schizophrenia is a diagnosis of exclusion–none of its clinical, biochemical, neuroradiologic, pathophysiologic, and psychologic features are sufficient to establish a definitive diagnosis DSM-IV Clinical Disordered thought processes and abnormal behavior–eg, hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, inappropriate or "blunted" affect, verbal incoherence, cognitive deficits, inappropriate or blunted affect Types Catatonic, paranoid, disorganized, undifferentiated, residual Management Antipsychotics are used to
1. ↓ hallucinations and delusions, and other thought disturbances and improve Sx of withdrawal and apathy.
2. Control Sx through maintenance therapy, and.
3. As long-term prophylaxis, neuroleptics include haloperidol and clozapine  See Cultural schizophrenia, Disorganized schizophrenia, Fugue, Multiple personality, Paranoid schizophrenia. Cf Schizoid personality disorder.
Schizophrenia-diagnostic criteria1
A Characteristic Sx: 2 or more2 of following, for a significant portion of 1+ months
 Disorganized (or catatonic) behavior
 Disorganized speech (incoherence)
 Negative symptoms, eg flattening of affect, loss of volition
B Social/occupational dysfunction  
C Duration 6+ months in duration with 1+ months of 'active' symptoms, defined by criteria A
Exclusions Symptoms are not better accounted for by
D Other mental disorders, eg Schizoaffective disorder or Mood disorder with psychotic features
E Other conditions, eg substances(medication, substance of abuse) and/or general medical conditions  
1Modified from Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed, Washington, DC, Am Psychiatric Assn, 1994
2Only one of criteria A is required if the delusions are bizarre, or hallucinations include 1 + 'voices in head'


n.pl the dental services not covered under a dental benefits program.
References in periodicals archive ?
These names and labels represent "kinds" of exclusion in the sense of there being different "sorts" of exclusion or overlapping "forms" of exclusion.
The data - which covers all statefunded primaries and secondaries - shows year-on-year increases, with exclusions up by a total of 27% since 2012-2013.
g pils There 3,800 bullying to With access mental health services increasingly difficult as CAMHS struggles to keep up, this impacts on the levels of challenging behaviour in schools, which can in turn lead to higher levels of fixed-term and permanent exclusions.
Across England, the number of permanent exclusions across all state-funded primary, secondary and special schools rose from 5,795 to 6,685, corresponding to around 35.
Overall in Welsh schools there were 370 permanent and fixed-term exclusions for drugand alcohol-related incidents in 2013-14 - up from 301 such incidents in 2011-12.
To move towards transparency and consistency in the application of fungi/ bacteria exclusions, there are some import facts that every claims adjuster should keep in mind.
If an individual makes gifts equal to or less than the annual exclusion amount to a recipient, the individual's lifetime exclusion is not reduced.
The passage of sweeping federal environmental legislation in the late 1970s and early 1980s led to the elimination of the "sudden and accidental" exception to the standard exclusion and the creation of the "absolute" pollution exclusion in 1985.
In fact, it was some courts' holdings in several cases involving exclusions in the CGL coverage form that caused Insurance Services Office to revise the name of this coverage from "comprehensive" general liability to "commercial" general liability.
In relation to the rise in temporary exclusions which you have highlighted, schools are increasingly focusing on shorter temporary exclusions so children are not out of school as long.
Boria said some residents are confusing that capital outlay expenditure exclusion with a Proposition 2-1/2 override and explained the differences between the two.
Rejecting all of the employer's arguments, the court cited several cases that had applied similar exclusions to bar coverage for workplace harassment, and held that this exclusion applied.