We believe that this geographically localized impact, like extraordinary returns to intellectual human capital itself, is a transitory phenomenon during the important initial period of industry development resulting from a major, commercially valuable scientific breakthrough characterized by natural excludability
One simple example of overcoming the excludability
problem in the provision of public goods is clubs, like local swim and tennis clubs.
good, since excludability
is difficult, the problem of underinvestment
The Revenue Act of 1913 was the first codification of the excludability
from taxable income of interest income earned by holding debt obligations or bonds of states, cities or counties.
Because norms about private funding, research excludability
, and basicness have no direct bearing on those about public funding, their exclusion from the basicness equation provides the random variation tracing out fundings' impacts on basicness.
35) Here again, even if the knowledge is nonrival, the importance of the issue is a consequence of the development of excludability
and thus of privatization.
Indeed, the Hansen statistic has high p-values, suggesting that the null hypothesis is not rejected and the instrument excludability
requirement is satisfied.
question is therefore important in the discussion of clubs.
In a victory of absolute sovereignty over international law, excludability
was to be stripped of the veneer of technical legality that retrospective excisions (by denying arrival) had provided, and was to become a straightforward categorical status imposed as if by decree.
At the same time, however, they suggest that excludability
may indeed be a real concern for academic, and particularly biomedical research, but to understand where and how it occurs, they need to look beyond patents to consider additional ways in which flows of knowledge and other inputs into research may be restricted (including secrecy and control over materials).
Are the majority of the clinical studies being done on nutraceuticals worthy of being called real science apparel, which can translate into incremental market share and competitor excludability
, or are we deluding ourselves yet again?
Since most charging liens are based on a much more moderate statute, or on no statute at all but the common law, the charging lien rationale for excludability
was of limited application.