is the sixth circumstance of innovation.
Do biochemical exaptations
link evolution of plant defense and pollination systems?
Put simply, one who adapts may be seen as flexible; one who preadapts has foresight; and one who benefits by exaptation
is merely lucky
1993a]: 'Propensities, Exaptations
and the Brain', White Queen Psychology and Other Essays for Alice, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, pp.
Response to these selective pressures has apparently been facilitated by several biochemical exaptations
that promoted switches between pollination systems (see discussion below).
facilitate mutualistic associations between invasive and native species?
Identifying adaptations and exaptations
, in addition to quantifying the current utility of the trait in question, requires a phylogenetic comparative approach (Baum and Larson, 1991).
you first have to distinguish between traits that are adaptations, that is, products of Darwinian natural selection, and traits that are byproducts of adaptations, also called spandrels or exaptations
Gould (1991) suggested that exaptations
might be a more important concept for EP.
Three kinds of exaptations
can be recognized (Arnold 1994).
In marine communities, the relationships between seaweeds and herbivores that seem to be most co-evolved appear, from the paleontological record, to result from fortuitous preadaptations (or exaptations
, see Gould and Vrba 1982) rather than from a long history of reciprocal adaptation (Hughes and Gliddon 1991, Steneck 1992, Hay et al.
A second move for evolutionists to make in light of the neuropsychological evidence is to go "all the way," and argue for a genetic cause of the neural assignment resulting in an exaptation
, where reading was a relatively recent application of a neuropsychological capacity used in the EEA for another purpose.