exaptation


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exaptation

(ĕg′zăp-tā′shən)
n. Biology
The utilization of a structure or feature for a function other than that for which it was developed through natural selection.

ex·ap′ted adj.
ex·ap′tive adj.
References in periodicals archive ?
Related to exaptation is the final concept of innovation: platforms.
Exaptation (Section VI) refers to the practice of innovation via borrowing mature technologies from seemingly unrelated fields.
Adaptive traits in general (and fire-adaptive traits in particular) fall into three different categories (as defined by Gould and Vrba, 1982): aptation (a beneficial trait, the origin of which is not defined), adaptation (an aptation built by a selective regime in the past that persists today) and exaptation (an aptation built by a selective regime in the past that differs from that which exists today).
His primary areas of research include an account of the evolution of the cortex through exaptation of existing neural circuitry (the "massive redeployment hypothesis"); the role of behavior, and of the brain's motor-control areas, in supporting higher-order cognitive functions; and the role of self-monitoring and self-control in maintaining robust real-world agency.
35)) Similarly, "baby sign language," an exaptation of American Sign Language, has recently become popular among parents in the United States, because children can learn to communicate by signing before they are able to talk.
This suggests that when a mirror neuron is activated by an observed action, it is a case of what Stephen Gould called an exaptation (Gould & Vrba, 1982).
Traugott (2001: 12) has recently drawn attention to the special place that exaptation may have in degrammaticalization, noting that, in exaptation, "individual morphemes have become relatively unanalyzable, or have lost connectedness with other member of their class, and have opportunistically and idiosyncratically been reused".
The most insistent claims that Gould makes for his revised version of Darwinian theory involve concepts that are familiar to biologists but may sound arcane to the general reader: punctuated equilibrium, hierarchical selection, exaptation, deep homology, and developmental channeling, among others.
A second move for evolutionists to make in light of the neuropsychological evidence is to go "all the way," and argue for a genetic cause of the neural assignment resulting in an exaptation, where reading was a relatively recent application of a neuropsychological capacity used in the EEA for another purpose.
As grace presupposes nature, so for Aquinas theology presupposes the intelligibility of being and the intellectual tools whereby that intelligibility is rendered actual and brought to expression in human discourse, both the inward discourse and its outward expression (the exaptation of language to communicate) in the formation of a linguistic community, upon which all else in religion, as in civilization generally, depends, in the main.
Put simply, one who adapts may be seen as flexible; one who preadapts has foresight; and one who benefits by exaptation is merely lucky
7) My use of "adaptation" subsumes adaptation, as usually conceived, and exaptation (see Gould and Vrba 1982).