evolution of the human foot

evolution of the human foot

gradual and incremental processes of structural change and functional adaptation over millennia that have facilitated bipedal stance and effective gait (i.e. combining a rigid lever to facilitate propulsion with flexible adaptation to differing contact surfaces), including elongation of midfoot (tarsus), elaborate plantar aponeurosis, strong plantar ligaments, longitudinal medial arch structure, enlarged flexor accessories (quadratus plantae) muscle, stable and adducted (non-opposable) hallux, shortened lesser toes, weight-bearing calcaneocuboid joint, and within-gait shift of body mass from lateral to medial forefoot areas as the result of subtalar and midtarsal joint pronation
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