Food and Drug Administration in 2005 for euvolemic
hyponatremia and in 2007 for hypervolemic hyponatremia.
In addition, when designing such a trial, researchers should consider as an end point the baseline, euvolemic
"dry" BNP concentration rather than a fixed concentration, given the high variability of BNP concentrations among stable patients.
SIADH is either euvolemic
or mildly hypervolemic (Barkan et al.
The definition criteria by Loh and Verbalis included the following: decreased effective osmolality of the extracellular fluid (plasma osmolality less than 275 mOsm/kg H2O), inappropriate urinary concentration (urine osmolality greater than 100 mOsm/kg H2O with normal renal function), clinical euvolemia, elevated urinary sodium excretion on a normal salt and water diet, absence of other potential causes of euvolemic
2]-receptor antagonist indicated for the treatment of clinically significant hypervolemic and euvolemic
hyponatremia, including patients with heart failure, cirrhosis, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone.
The primary function of the cardiovascular system is to supply oxygen to tissues and organs in the body RBC transfusions are commonly used to treat anemia, including euvolemic
patients with congestive heart failure, to increase oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissue.
Efficacy and safety of oral conivaptan: a VlA/ V2 vasopressin receptor antagonist, assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with euvolemic
or hypervolemic hyponatremia.
Conivaptan, which was approved in 2005 for euvolemic
hyponatremia, received approval in early 2007 for dilutional (hypervolemic) hyponatremia.
He was clinically euvolemic
and no vasculitic skin lesions were seen.
Food and Drug Administration for Vaprisol, its proprietary agent for treating euvolemic
hyponatremia in hospitalized patients.
With this approval, the agent is now applicable for treating euvolemic
This is due to two factors: 1) all such drinks are hypotonic (<135 mmol/L), and therefore will cause dilution of serum [Na+] if water is retained in the body to excess; and 2) it is well known that even administration of isotonic saline will not increase serum [Na+] in hyponatremic patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) because in a euvolemic
or hypervolemic state, the infused sodium will be excreted in the urine rather than retained (65).