Males were found to have higher levels of eustress
and self-esteem motivation and females were found to have higher levels of family motivation in each of the five studies (although the family subscale difference was only marginally significant in one study).
demonstrated that team identification, eustress
, group affiliation, and self-esteem enhancement were closely related to game attendance.
In addition, males scored higher on the eustress
, self-esteem, escape, and aesthetic subscales, while females scored higher on the family subscale.
1999) discovered that fans of individual sports reported a higher level of aesthetic motivation than persons with a preference for team sports, and persons who preferred team sports showed higher scores on the subscales for self-esteem and eustress
For example, the aesthetic motive was more important for individual sports, while the motives of eustress
, self-esteem, family, group affiliation, and entertainment were more important for team sports.
Eight underlying factors, represented by 23 items that motivate fan behavior, were identified from the conceptual literature: eustress
, self-esteem benefits, escape, entertainment, economic factors, aesthetic qualities, group affiliation, and family needs.
In contrast, hedonic motives are experiential in nature involving subjective emotional responses to the product such as excitement, fantasy, eustress
, vicarious achievement, escape, aesthetics, group affiliation, and social interaction (Funk et al.
The athlete's conscious use of cognitive and behavioral techniques to best manage distress, not eustress
, is called coping.
can help us to regulate our emotional life, make us more cheerful and provide positive thrills," he continues.
But there's also good stress - it's called eustress
Feeling a positive push, known as Eustress
, gets our blood pumping to prepare for us for the day.
motive involves individuals who do not receive a sufficient amount of stimulation in their everyday lives.