esophageal achalasia


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e·soph·a·ge·al a·cha·la·si·a

failure of normal relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter associated with uncoordinated contractions of the thoracic esophagus, resulting in functional obstruction and difficulty swallowing.

esophageal achalasia

Cardiospasm GI disease A condition characterized by a failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax, accompanied by defective contraction of the thoracic esophagus, resulting in functional obstruction and dysphagia. See GERD.

e·soph·a·ge·al a·cha·la·si·a

(ĕ-sof'ă-jē'ăl ak'ă-lā'zē-ă)
An obstruction to the passage of food that develops in the terminal esophagus; caused by an autonomic nervous system abnormality.
Synonym(s): achalasia of the cardia, cardiospasm, oesophageal achalasia.

e·soph·a·ge·al a·cha·la·si·a

(ĕ-sof'ă-jē'ăl ak'ă-lā'zē-ă)
Failure of normal relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter associated with uncoordinated contractions of thoracic esophagus, resulting in functional obstruction and difficulty swallowing.

achalasia

failure to relax of the smooth muscle fibers of the gastrointestinal tract at any junction of one part with another; especially failure of the lower esophagus to relax with swallowing, due to an abnormality of innervation. Called also cardiospasm. See also megaesophagus.

cricoesophageal achalasia
failure of the cranial esophageal sphincter to relax during swallowing to accommodate the approaching bolus. Gagging, nasal regurgitation and aspiration result. Called also cricoesophageal incoordination.
cricopharyngeal achalasia
is motor dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal sphincter in which a failure of relaxation prevents the bolus from entering the esophagus during swallowing. Called also cricopharyngeal dysphagia.
esophageal achalasia
pyloric achalasia
failure of the pylorus to open in neonates so that distention of the stomach occurs and causes continuous vomiting. This may be reflex in response to local ulceration, e.g. in young calves, or be a congenital defect.
reticulo-omasal sphincter achalasia
is probably a factor in the development of the gut stasis in bovine vagal indigestion with onward passage of ingesta obstructed at the exit from the rumenoreticulum. Results in rumen distention and frothiness of contents.

esophageal

of or pertaining to the esophagus.

esophageal achalasia
esophageal anomalies
very rare; include atresia, duplication, segmental aplasia, esophagorespiratory fistulae, diverticula, epithelial inclusion cysts.
esophageal atresia
congenital lack of continuity of the esophagus, commonly accompanied by tracheoesophageal fistula, and characterized by accumulations of mucus in the nasopharynx, gagging, vomiting when fed, cyanosis and dyspnea. Treatment is by surgical repair by esophageal anastomosis and division of the fistula.
esophageal distention
may result from acute or chronic obstruction of the esophagus, or from defective innervation. See also megaesophagus.
esophageal duplication
may be tubular and communicate with the effective esophagus, or cystic appearing as a cystic mass close to the functioning esophagus.
esophageal ectasia
esophageal enlargement
clinically visible enlargement as seen in esophageal diverticulum, stenosis, paralysis, cardial obstruction.
esophageal fibrosis
a cause of acquired megaesophagus; usually caused by trauma or spontaneous ulceration.
esophageal groove
see reticular groove.
esophageal groove lesion
includes granuloma, papilloma, foreign body lodgment; cause of obstructive bloat.
esophageal hyperkeratosis
hyperkeratotic thickening of the esophageal mucosa due usually to hypovitaminosis A or chlorinated naphthalene poisoning.
esophageal inflammation
esophageal motility disorders
esophageal neoplasm
very rare except for papilloma and fibropapilloma; causes chronic esophageal obstruction.
esophageal obstruction
acute obstruction is manifested by inability to swallow, regurgitation of saliva, food and water through the nose and much discomfort expressed by retching movements and pawing at the throat. Ruminants develop ruminal tympany. Chronic obstruction shows the same syndrome but with a gradual development and a tendency to develop aspiration pneumonia.
Enlarge picture
Palpating an esophageal obstruction in a cow. By permission from Blowey RW, Weaver AD, Diseases and Disorders of Cattle, Mosby, 1997
esophageal osteosarcoma
occurs in dogs in association with the parasite Spirocerca lupi.
esophageal papilloma
a cause of obstructive bloat.
esophageal paralysis
causes esophageal obstruction.
esophageal patching
see patch graft.
esophageal perforation
causes local cellulitis and compression-obstruction of esophagus.
esophageal pulsion diverticulum
a diverticulum that pushes outwards causing pressure on surrounding organs and tissues.
esophageal segmental aplasia
causes esophageal obstruction in neonates.
esophageal stenosis, esophageal stricture
causes esophageal obstruction; may be partial, permitting passage of liquids.
esophageal tube
see nasogastric tube.
esophageal ulcer
usually associated with pressure necrosis due to prolonged obstruction and injury by a solid foreign body or, rarely equine dysautonomia or Gasterophilus spp. infestation.
esophageal varices
distended veins at the gastric cardia causing dysphagia.