A histological analysis of the aspirate revealed histiocytes associated with erythrophagocytosis
(57%), lymphoid hyperplasia (55%), central follicular necrosis (49%), lymphoid rarefaction (45%), hemosiderosis (37%), and inflammatory infiltrate of plasma cells (6%).
Histological lesions of pulmonary, hepatic and splenic erythrophagocytosis
and hemosiderosis were found in 23 of 24 birds.
Iron release from macrophages after erythrophagocytosis
is up-regulated by ferroportin 1 overexpression and down-regulated by hepcidin.
of desialylated red blood cells is responsible for anaemia during Trypanosoma vivax infection.
Autopsy showed congested lungs and pleural effusions, atrophic adrenal glands, no identifiable thymus, and no erythrophagocytosis
in liver or spleen.
Haemogram of the infected animals revealed normocytic normochromic anaemia which reflects destruction of RBCs by parasite and activation of haemopoitic system in response to erythrophagocytosis
(Kumar and Sangwan, 2010).
Tumour necrosis factor may contribute to the anemia of malaria by causing dyserythropoiesis and erythrophagocytosis
While increased erythrophagocytosis
occurs due to TNF-a and cytokine mediated toxic free radicals (nitric oxide, superoxide anion).
A bone marrow aspirate confirmed erythrophagocytosis
and rare hemophagocytic cells.
occurs primarily in cells of the spleen and liver, but proximal tubular epithelial cells in the kidney also have this capability.
induced by inflammatory cytokines may also contribute to ACD.