2%) clinically and by CT scans, typically at the epitympanic
True tympanic membrane measurement reflects central compartment blood temperature by direct perfusion via the carotid artery, but requires an epitympanic
contact thermistor, which is rarely available in the field and influenced by ambient temperature if incorrectly placed and not insulated.
area was dissected with the help of curettage for proper visualisation of head of malleus, body and short process of incus.
They also discuss endoscopic approaches to middle ear cholesteatomas, combined endoscopic-microscopic middle ear surgery for cholesteatoma, endoscopic treatment of severe attic retraction and epitympanic
and retrotympanic cholesteatoma, endoscopic treatment of cholesteatoma with antral extension, endoscopic myringoplasty, endoscopic transcanal stapes surgery, endoscopic removal of middle ear neoplasms, the endoscopic transcanal approach to the inner ear and petrous apex, combined approaches to petrous apex and inner ear diseases, and the endoscopic endonasal approach to the petrous apex.
Surgical anatomy of the anterior epitympanic
Precholesteatoma was also defined as the development of an epitympanic
retraction pocket or that of a facial recess retraction pocket after the surgical opening of the facial recess .
Axial (Image A) and coronal (Image B and C) HRCT images showed as non-dependent soft tissue density lesion in right Prussak's space extending into right epitympanic
space after eroding right scutum.
A 5 x 5-mm cystic lesion was noted in the anterior epitympanic
space abutting on the tympanic segment of the facial nerve.
The outcome of untreated epitympanic
CSOM is more uncertain and may end in serious complications than the natural history of Tubo-tympanic CSOM.
associated with another congenital ossicular chain anomaly (38%), followed by isolated stapes ankylosis (31%), epitympanic
fixation (14%), congenital aplasia or severe dysplasia of the oval or round window (9%), and discontinuity of the ossicular chain (8%).
Intraoperatively, a large cholesteatoma sac was found filling the antrum and extending to the mesotympanic and epitympanic
By 35 weeks, a bony ridge has formed that separates the geniculate ganglion from the epitympanic