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The study of knowledge and rules of evidence involved. Traditionally a branch of philosophy, it also describes a discipline incorporated in, and in some respects peculiar to, individual fields of scholarship (medicine, science, history, etc.).


The theory, study of, and basis for knowledge; that which investigates the origin, nature, methods, validity and limits of human knowledge.

epistemology (·pisˈ·t·mäˑ·l·jē),

n that branch of philosophy that scrutinizes the nature, foundations, and limits of knowledge.
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Brooks (1997) and others (Butler, 1999; Mohanty, 1988; De Toro, 1999) while emphasizing the epistemological plurality in the Postmodern era, have contested the epistemological affirmations of modernist feminism.
The interviewed students were divided into advanced epistemological beliefs and naive beliefs according to their mean scores assessed by the Epistemological Belief questionnaire (mean = 4.
Recognizing that education metaphors have the capacity to help uncover and mediate the relationship between thought and action, as well as provide the potential for changing both (Cook-Sather, 2003; Efron & Joseph, 2001; Provenzo, McCloskey, Kottkamp, & Cohn, 1989; Saban, 2010), we consider the ways in which teacher metaphors reflect their epistemological orientations.
In the analysis of the data obtained from the research, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and t tests were used in the investigation of the relationships between self-esteem, occupational self-esteem, and epistemological beliefs.
This work examines the variability in people's beliefs about how knowledge is defined, acquired, and evaluated, thereby shifting the conversation to the epistemological diversity found within communities, cultures, and contexts.
As seen by the author the cosmovision and epistemological orientation of The Mapuche and Xhosa of 3 South Africa are inextricably linked to the holistic relationship between man, nature and the supernatural.
Longitudinal adult developmental research suggests that while fewer than five percent of North American adults construct meaning entirely with this epistemological perspective, up to 36 percent are partially instrumental knowers (Kegan, 1994).
3) But the folk-epistemic argument also points the way toward addressing the political problem of Deep Politics, as it identifies, on the basis of epistemological norms already in place, a mode of political engagement appropriate for free and equal democratic citizens.
The authors provide a critical view of the methodologies of structural econometrics as first developed by Frisch and Tinbergen and extended by Haavelmo and the Cowles Project as ontological and epistemological failures and propose to abandon the "methodological individualism" of the neoclassical econometrics approach and substitute the "methodological institutionalism" articulated in previous writings by coauthor Nell.
One of the elements that make up this system is, as was pointed out before, is the belief in self-efficacy, which is emphasized by the social-cognitive theory, while another involves epistemological beliefs.
Accordingly, in the above-mentioned essay inaugurating the collection, Haakonssen challenges what he calls the epistemological paradigm in the understanding and presentation of eighteenth-century philosophy.