epiretinal membrane

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Related to epiretinal membrane: Macular hole


a thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ. adj., adj mem´branous.
alveolar-capillary membrane (alveolocapillary membrane) a thin tissue barrier through which gases are exchanged between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Called also blood-air barrier and blood-gas barrier.
alveolodental membrane periodontium.
arachnoid membrane arachnoid.
basement membrane a sheet of amorphous extracellular material upon which the basal surfaces of epithelial cells rest; it is also associated with muscle cells, Schwann cells, fat cells, and capillaries, interposed between the cellular elements and the underlying connective tissue. It comprises two layers, the basal lamina and the reticular lamina, and is composed of Type IV collagen (which is unique to basement membranes), laminin, fibronectin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans.
basilar membrane the lower boundary of the scala media of the ear.
Bowman's membrane a thin layer of basement membrane between the outer layer of stratified epithelium and the substantia propria of the cornea.
Bruch's membrane the inner layer of the choroid, separating it from the pigmented layer of the retina.
cell membrane plasma membrane.
decidual m's (deciduous m's) decidua.
Descemet's membrane the posterior lining membrane of the cornea; it is a thin hyaline membrane between the substantia propria and the endothelial layer of the cornea.
diphtheritic membrane the peculiar false membrane characteristic of diphtheria, formed by coagulation necrosis.
drum membrane tympanic membrane.
epiretinal membrane a pathologic membrane partially covering the surface of the retina, probably originating chiefly from the retinal pigment epithelial and glial cells; membranes peripheral to the macula are generally asymptomatic, while those involving the macula or adjacent to it may cause reduction in vision, visual distortion, and diplopia.
extraembryonic m's those that protect the embryo or fetus and provide for its nutrition, respiration, and excretion; the yolk sac (umbilical vesicle), allantois, amnion, chorion, decidua, and placenta. Called also fetal membranes.
false membrane a membranous exudate, such as the diphtheritic membrane; called also neomembrane.
fenestrated membrane one of the perforated elastic sheets of the tunica intima and tunica media of arteries.
hemodialyzer membrane the semipermeable membrane that filters the blood in a hemodialyzer, commonly made of cuprophane, cellulose acetate, polyacrylonitrile, polymethyl methacrylate, or polysulfone.
Henle's membrane fenestrated membrane.
high efficiency membrane a hemodialyzer membrane that has clearance characteristics that increase progressively with increases in dialysis blood flow rates; this usually implies that the membrane is not a high flux membrane.
high flux membrane a hemodialyzer membrane that has a high permeability to fluids and solutes and thus a high rate of clearance of fluids and solutes composed of large molecules.
hyaline membrane
1. a membrane between the outer root sheath and inner fibrous layer of a hair follicle.
3. a homogeneous eosinophilic membrane lining alveolar ducts and alveoli, frequently found at autopsy of infants that were preterm. See also hyaline membrane disease.
hyoglossal membrane a fibrous lamina connecting the undersurface of the tongue with the hyoid bone.
impaired oral mucous membrane a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as disruptions of the lips and soft tissue of the oral cavity. Changes in the integrity and health of the oral mucous membrane can occur as a characteristic of such medical disorders as periodontal disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, oral cancer, and infection with herpes. Chemical irritants such as alcohol and tobacco can also adversely affect the oral mucous membrane, as can mechanical trauma due to broken teeth, poorly fitting dentures, and endotracheal intubation. Other etiologic factors include dehydration, mouth breathing, poor oral hygiene, radiation to the head or neck, and antineoplastic agents.

Preventive measures that can help maintain the health and integrity of the oral mucosa will depend on the cause. Routinely brushing and flossing the teeth during the day and at bedtime can help avoid dental caries and periodontal disease. Some patients may need instruction in the proper procedure for cleaning the teeth and removing debris and plaque, or they may need assistance in devising ways to cope with physical disabilities that make good oral hygiene difficult for them. Patients who are unconscious or unable to perform self-care activities should have mouth care as often as needed to keep the mouth clean and moist and avoid aspiration of debris and infectious microorganisms. Adequate hydration and a lip lubricant can help avoid alterations in the oral mucosa and promote comfort.
limiting membrane one that constitutes the border of some tissue or structure.
mucous membrane the membrane covered with epithelium that lines the tubular organs of the body.
Nasmyth's membrane primary cuticle.
nuclear membrane
1. either of the membranes, inner and outer, comprising the nuclear envelope.
olfactory membrane the olfactory portion of the mucous membrane lining the nasal fossa.
placental membrane the membrane that separates the fetal from the maternal blood in the placenta.
plasma membrane the membrane that encloses a cell; it is composed of phospholipids, glycolipids, cholesterol, and proteins. The primary structure is a lipid bilayer. Phospholipid molecules have an electrically charged “head” that attracts water and a hydrocarbon “tail” that repels water; they line up side by side in two opposing layers with their heads on the inner or outer surface of the membrane and their tails in the core, from which water is excluded. The other lipids affect the structural properties of the membrane. Proteins embedded in the membrane transport specific molecules across the membrane, act as hormone receptors, or perform other functions.
Reissner's membrane the thin anterior wall of the cochlear duct, separating it from the scala vestibuli.
membrane of round window secondary tympanic membrane.
Scarpa's membrane tympanic membrane, secondary.
semipermeable membrane one permitting passage through it of some but not all substances.
serous membrane the membrane lining the walls of the body cavities and enclosing the contained organs; it consists of mesothelium lying upon a connective tissue layer and it secretes a watery fluid.
synovial membrane the inner of the two layers of the articular capsule of a synovial joint; composed of loose connective tissue and having a free smooth surface that lines the joint cavity.
tympanic membrane see tympanic membrane.
tympanic membrane, secondary the membrane enclosing the round window; called also Scarpa's membrane.
unit membrane the trilaminar structure of all cellular membranes (such as the plasma membrane, nuclear membranes, mitochondrial membranes, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes) as they appear in electron micrographs. The biochemical structure is a lipid bilayer.
virginal membrane hymen.
vitelline membrane the external envelope of an ovum.
vitreous membrane
2. hyaline membrane (def. 1).
4. a delicate boundary layer investing the vitreous body.

ep·i·ret·i·nal mem·brane

a membrane, usually acquired, covering a portion of the retina and composed of fibrous tissue from metaplasia of retinal pigment epithelial cells or glia.

epiretinal membrane

a pathological membrane partially covering the surface of the retina, probably originating from the retinal pigment epithelial and glial cells. Membranes peripheral to the macula are generally asymptomatic, but those involving the macula or adjacent to it may cause reduction in vision, visual distortion, and diplopia.

fibrosis, preretinal macular

Proliferation of glial cells over the surface of the internal limiting membrane of the macular region of the retina. Ophthalmoscopically the retina presents a glinting reflex. The condition may occur after trauma, eye surgery, retinal vascular disease (e.g. branch retinal vein occlusion) and inflammation and with any of the causes of retinitis proliferans and most commonly in elderly patients. Initially the patient is asymptomatic or reports some distortion of vision (metamorphopsia). This stage is often called cellophane maculopathy. As the condition develops, visual acuity diminishes, there is retinal wrinkling and the preretinal membrane becomes denser obscuring some retinal vessels in ophthalmoscopy. Some patients may also develop a macular hole and posterior vitreous detachment. If vision is significantly reduced, the main treatment is by vitreous surgery with removal of the layer of preretinal proliferative tissue. Syn. epiretinal membrane; macular epiretinal membrane; macular pucker; premacular fibrosis; preretinal membrane; preretinal vitreous membrane; surface wrinkling retinopathy. See proliferative retinopathy.
References in periodicals archive ?
Epidemiology of epiretinal membrane in a large cohort of patients with uveitis.
Accuracy of preoperative biometry in vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery for patients with epiretinal membranes and macular holes; results of a prospective controlled clinical trial.
On OCT most of the macular hole in stage 3 and stage 4 were associated with subretinal fluid, epiretinal membrane.
As yet, there is no adequate explanation as to why smoking may be beneficial for the condition of epiretinal membrane, in contrast to the habit's many other damaging effects within the eye.
There are several descriptive terms used for epiretinal membranes covering the spectrum of severity; these include terms such as cellophane maculopathy, pre-retinal macular fibrosis, gliosis, surface wrinkling retinopathy, epimacular fibrosis, pre-macular fibroplasia and various combinations of these terms.
Pre-operative risk factors include active or history of uveitis, diabetes, previous retinal vein occlusion, AMD, epiretinal membrane (ERM), vitreo-macular traction (VMT), previous CMO, and use of prostaglandin analogues for glaucoma treatment.
While uncomplicated PVD occurs in the majority of cases, the incidence of retinal complications in symptomatic PVD has been reported to be as high as 24% (24) and include retinal tears, tractional retinal detachments, macular holes and epiretinal membrane (ERM) formation.
b This is a marked epiretinal membrane overlying the macula
Double staining with Brilliant Blue G and double peeling for epiretinal membranes.
Also, the retina had already developed epiretinal membranes, fibrosis and multiple contractions as she had sought further intervention much later.
The indications of OCT include posterior segment lesions like the detection of fluid within the retinal layers or under the retina (which may not be visible clinically), (3) macular holes, pseudoholes, epiretinal membranes (ERMs), vitreo-macular adhesion (VMA), vitreomacular traction (VMT), retinoschisis, retinal detachment, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), optic disc parameters, as well as assessment and analysis of anterior segment structures like anterior chamber area, volume and iris thickness.
In such eyes 3 ports were made, areas of retinal elevations were assessed and epiretinal membranes (ERM) / PVR membranes were removed.