Furthermore, there were complications such as macular scar and the epiretinal
membrane that compromised visual prognosis.
membrane or ERM was identified as a hyperreflective thickening at the level of ILM, causing distortion and flattening of the foveal surface.
B, Nonneoplastic retina expressing VEGFR-2 and epiretinal
neovascular membrane with many new vessels (*).
The indications of OCT include posterior segment lesions like the detection of fluid within the retinal layers or under the retina (which may not be visible clinically), (3) macular holes, pseudoholes, epiretinal
membranes (ERMs), vitreo-macular adhesion (VMA), vitreomacular traction (VMT), retinoschisis, retinal detachment, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), optic disc parameters, as well as assessment and analysis of anterior segment structures like anterior chamber area, volume and iris thickness.
Although postoperatively macula appears clinically reattached, development of cystoid macular oedema, epiretinal
membrane or persistent submacular fluid (SMF) may affect the visual recovery and all of those changes can be visualized by OCT [8-10].
The initial investigation, led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, determined that in all cases patients had undergone vitrectomy with epiretinal
membrane peeling using a dye called Brilliant Blue-G (BBG) from Franck's Compounding Lab, Ocala, Florida.
Other types of retinal implants, called epiretinal
implants, sit outside the retina and require the user to wear an external camera and processor unit because they bypass the intact, light-sensitive structures in the eyes.
This condition is also known as epiretinal
membrane, cellophane maculopathy, and surface wrinkling maculopathy.
Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in epiretinal
membrane in Eales disease.
Causes of Visual Acuity Deterioration Causes of worsening # of cases ARMD 15 Progression of glaucoma 9 Vein occlusion 8 Diabetic retinopathy 6 Corneal edema 5 Choroidals 4 Epiretinal
membrane 3 Ischemic optic neuropathy 2 Cerebrovascular accident 2 Retinal detachment 2 Epithelial Downgrowth 1 Total 57 Table 2.
Two main approaches exist: the epiretinal
approach in which the implant is placed on the vitreal side of the retina  and the subretinal approach in which the implant replaces degenerated photoreceptors [7-8].
Another project aiming to develop implants that electrically stimulate retinal ganglion cells, the retina's output cells, is the Epiretinal
Implant (EPIRET) project, which is funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research.