epidural

(redirected from epidurally)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.
Related to epidurally: peridural, peridural anesthesia

epidural

 [ep″ĭ-du´ral]
situated upon or outside the dura mater.

ep·i·du·ral

(ep'i-dū'răl),
On (or outside) the dura mater. [Usage note: epidural and extradural are nearly synonymous, with the exception that epidural implies immediate proximity to the dura mater, and extradural may be unconnected with it.]
See also: extradural.
Synonym(s): peridural

epidural

/epi·du·ral/ (-dūr´il) situated upon or outside the dura mater.

epidural

(ĕp′ĭ-do͝or′əl, -dyo͝or′-)
adj.
Located on or over the dura mater.
n.
An injection into the epidural space of the spine.

epidural

[ep′idoo͡r′əl]
Etymology: Gk, epi + dura, hard
outside or above the dura mater.

epidural

adjective Referring to the space between the bone of vertebral column and the meninges of the brain or spinal cord noun An epidural injection administered in the epidural space of the vertebral column

ep·i·du·ral

(ep'i-dūr'ăl)
On (or outside) the dura mater.

epidural

External to the DURA MATER, the outer of the three MENINGES covering the brain and spinal cord.

anaesthesia

general or local loss of sensation, due to pharmacological or pathological suppression of nerve function; the syringe should be aspirated prior to the deposition of injectable anaesthetic
  • ankle block anaesthesia the introduction of local anaesthetic (ILA) to nerve trunks supplying the foot as they cross the ankle joint (deep injections to reach the tibial and deep peroneal nerves, and superficial/subcuticular injections to reach the superficial peroneal, sural and saphenous nerves) to achieve whole-foot anaesthesia (see named sites below)

  • Bier's block anaesthesia ILA into the venous circulation of a limb after the application of pressure cuffs inflated to above systolic pressure to prevent venous drainage of the limb, to achieve whole-limb anaesthesia

  • common peroneal block anaesthesia ILA to subcuticular tissue at neck of fibula, to achieve dorsal foot anaesthesia; this injection also causes footdrop that persists for the duration of anaesthesia

  • deep peroneal block anaesthesia ILA to the deep peroneal nerve where it crosses the anterior ankle joint, deep to the extensor retinaculum, to anaesthetize the dorsal area of the first interdigital cleft; the needle is introduced either between tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus tendons, passing through the extensor retinaculum to the anterior tibia; or adjacent to dorsalis pedis pulse where the nerve becomes superficial (injection into the adjacent artery is avoided by aspirating the syringe prior to deposition of LA solution)

  • digital block anaesthesia ILA to digital nerves (dorsal/medial; dorsal/lateral; plantar/medial; plantar/lateral) at the base of the toe, to achieve whole-digit anaesthesia

  • epidural anaesthesia ILA into cerebrospinal fluid to anaesthetize all tissues distal to the injection site

  • field block anaesthesia; regional anaesthesia ILA about all nerves subserving part or all of a limb/body region, to achieve anaesthesia of all tissues distal to the injection sites, e.g. ankle block, digital block, popliteal block, epidural anaesthesia

  • first-ray block anaesthesia; Mayo block anaesthesia ILA to branches of the medial plantar, superficial and deep peroneal nerves at the base of the first metatarsal, to achieve anaesthesia of the distal first ray

  • general anaesthesia; GA central suppression of conscious awareness of pain and other sensations, induced by an intravenous anaesthetic agent, and maintained by inhaled agents, often supplemented with muscle relaxants

  • high saphenous nerve anaesthesia ILA to the saphenous nerve at the medial side of the knee joint to achieve anaesthesia of the medial aspect of the lower leg and the medial longitudinal arch

  • infiltration anaesthesia; local infiltration anaesthesia the introduction of a small volume (e.g. 1 mL) of local anaesthetic solution into the subcuticular tissues underlying a skin lesion, to permit painless treatment of the lesion (see bleb)

  • intermetatarsal anaesthesia ILA to branches of the medial and/or lateral plantar, superficial and deep peroneal nerves at the bases of adjacent lesser metatarsals, to achieve anaesthesia of adjacent rays, interposed soft tissues and distal structures

  • local anaesthesia; LA loss of tissue sensation and pain by the injection or topical application (e.g. Emla) of local anaesthetic agents; LAs cause reversible conduction block of sensory, motor and autonomic nerve fibres

  • local infiltration anaesthesia see infiltration anaesthesia

  • Mayo block anaesthesia see first-ray block anaesthesia

  • medial dorsal cutaneous nerve anaesthesia see superficial peroneal block anaesthesia

  • peroneal block anaesthesia see common peroneal block anaesthesia

  • popliteal block injection ILA to the tibial nerve at the superior lateral area of the popliteal fossa, at a point approximately 5 cm proximal to a line joining the medial and lateral condyles and 1 cm lateral to the vertical bisection of the knee joint, i.e. before the nerve trunk divides to form the sural communicating and tibial nerves, in order to achieve anaesthesia of all parts of the lower leg and foot except the medial longitudinal arch; the deep location of the popliteal nerve is identified by a nerve stimulator

  • proximal digital block ILA just proximal to the medial and lateral aspects of the metatarsophalangeal joint to achieve anaesthesia of dorsal and plantar digital nerves just before they divide to form the proper plantar and dorsal digital nerves; the needle is introduced at right angles to dorsal skin to one side of the metatarsal neck and a bolus of LA solution deposited, the needle is advanced through the intermetatarsal soft tissues towards the plantar aspect of the foot and a further bolus of LA solution deposited just deep to the dermoepidermal junction; the plantar tissues will blanch on delivery of the plantar LA bolus

  • ray block ILA to the medial and lateral aspects of a metatarsal, as in intermetatarsal anaesthesia, in order to achieve ray anaesthesia

  • regional anaesthesia see field block anaesthesia

  • ring block anaesthesia see digital block anaesthesia

  • saphenous block injection ILA to saphenous nerve as it crosses the medial/ anterior ankle joint, superficial to the extensor retinaculum, in order to achieve anaesthesia of the medial/plantar longitudinal; the needle is introduced subdermally, medial to tibialis anterior tendon and directed towards the medial border of the ankle, parallel to the skin surface; LA is deposited as a 'sausage' in the subcuticular tissue between the anterior ankle and the medial malleolus

  • spinal anaesthesia reversible block of nerve transmission from all distal tissues by the introduction of local anaesthetic solution into the spinal cord subarachnoid space

  • superficial peroneal anaesthesia; medial dorsal cutaneous nerve anaesthesia ILA to the superficial peroneal nerve (medial dorsal cutaneous nerve) as it crosses the anterior ankle joint, superficial to the extensor retinaculum, to achieve anaesthesia of the majority dorsum of the foot (except the dorsal area of the first interdigital cleft); the needle is introduced subdermally adjacent to the extensor digitorum longus tendons, and directed towards the lateral border of the ankle, parallel to the skin surface; LA is deposited as a 'sausage' within the subcuticular tissue along the anterior ankle

  • sural nerve block anaesthesia ILA to the sural nerve as it crosses the lateral/ posterior ankle joint, superficial to the extensor retinaculum, to achieve anaesthesia of the lateral border of the foot and fifth toe; the needle is introduced subdermally behind the lateral malleolus and the tip of the needle aimed in the direction of the hallux

  • tibial block anaesthesia ILA to the tibial nerve in order to achieve anaesthesia of the plantar surface; anaesthetic solution is deposited around the tibial nerve posterior to the medial malleolus; the needle should pass through the retinaculum to the posterior, directing the tip of the needle toward the little toe; injection into the adjacent tibial artery is avoided by aspirating the syringe before depositing LA solution

  • toe block anaesthesia see digital block anaesthesia

epidural

pertaining to or emanating from the dura mater.

epidural abscess
see brain abscess, spinal abscess.
epidural anesthesia
produced by injecting local anesthetic agent into the epidural space of the spinal canal at the first or second intercoccygeal space. Injection of a small amount of anesthetic agent produces anesthesia of the perineum without paralysis of the hindlimbs, a low epidural. Injection of a large volume at the same site produces a high epidural. The same effect is achieved by injecting the anesthetic at the lumbosacral or first interlumbar space. Called also extradural anesthesia, or analgesia, extradural block, epidural block.
Enlarge picture
Epidural anesthesia in a cow. By permission from Parkinson TJ, England GCW, Arthur GH, Arthur's Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics, Saunders, 2001
epidural block
see epidural anesthesia (above).
segmental dorsolumbar epidural block
injection of local anesthetic into the epidural space between the first two lumbar vertebrae produces anesthesia of both flanks. Used for standing abdominal surgery in horses or cattle.
References in periodicals archive ?
In this study we demonstrated that epidurally administered levobupivacaine significantly delayed the recovery index and complete recovery of neuromuscular function from vecuronium-induced block, while not influencing the lag time, onset time and time to spontaneous recovery of T1 to 25% of baseline value, in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery.
addition, data from patients receiving ziconotide epidurally for both
The differential diagnosis of a possible subdural injection should be considered in cases of extensive sensory blockade despite apparently small volumes of epidurally administered local anaesthetics, unexpected failure of block or atypical presentations following otherwise uncomplicated regional block.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Clonidine Hydrochloride Injection (epidural clonidine) to be administered epidurally.
At our institution, analgesia following open abdominal surgery is provided by continuous infusion of analgesic solutions either intravenously, intrathecally (incorporating midazolam) or epidurally.
Later, in 2004, the same authors were able to establish a correlation between the absolute ICP measured epidurally and the pressure inside the endoscope.