epidural anesthesia


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Related to epidural anesthesia: Epidural analgesia

anesthesia

 [an″es-the´ze-ah]
1. lack of feeling or sensation.
2. artificially induced loss of ability to feel pain, done to permit the performance of surgery or other painful procedures. It may be produced by a number of agents (anesthetics) capable of bringing about partial or complete loss of sensation.(See accompanying table.)
Patient Care. Interventions of the health care team will be individualized based on the type of procedure the patient has undergone and the type of anesthesia administered. Patients recovering from general anesthesia must be assessed constantly until they have reacted. The vital signs and blood pressure are checked regularly; any sudden change is reported immediately. They must be observed to see that the airway is clear at all times. The observation is in specialized recovery rooms called postanesthesia care units that are equipped with a variety of monitors to measure such variables as blood pressure, respiratory and pulse rates, cardiac output, body temperature, fluid balance, and oxygenation. When necessary, patients are initially managed with ventilators that inflate the lungs mechanically through endotracheal tubes. Changes in breathing pattern, eye movements, lacrimation, and muscle tone are indicators for the depth of anesthesia. Breathing patterns are the most sensitive of these.

When patients are awakening from general anesthesia they may be restless, attempting to get out of bed or even striking out at those around them because they are afraid and disoriented. This state is called emergence delirium and should be assessed, as it can indicate hypoxia. Retrograde amnesia may be associated with the administration of anesthesia and adjuncts, causing the patient to forget events occurring in the immediate postoperative period.
ambulatory anesthesia anesthesia performed on an outpatient basis for ambulatory surgery.
balanced anesthesia anesthesia that uses a combination of drugs, each in an amount sufficient to produce its major or desired effect to the optimum degree and to keep undesirable effects to a minimum.
basal anesthesia a reversible state of central nervous system depression produced by preliminary medication so that the inhalation of anesthetic necessary to produce surgical anesthesia is greatly reduced.
block anesthesia regional anesthesia.
caudal anesthesia a type of regional anesthesia that was used in childbirth between the 1940s and the 1960s. The anesthetizing solution, usually procaine, was injected into the caudal area of the spinal canal through the lower end of the sacrum and affected the caudal nerve roots, rendering the cervix, vagina, and perineum insensitive to pain. Called also caudal block.
central anesthesia lack of sensation caused by disease of the nerve centers.
closed circuit anesthesia that produced by continuous rebreathing of a small amount of anesthetic gas in a closed system with an apparatus for removing carbon dioxide.
compression anesthesia loss of sensation resulting from pressure on a nerve.
crossed anesthesia loss of sensation on one side of the face and loss of pain and temperature sense on the opposite side of the body.
dissociated anesthesia (dissociation anesthesia) loss of perception of certain stimuli while that of others remains intact.
electric anesthesia anesthesia induced by passage of an electric current.
endotracheal anesthesia anesthesia produced by introduction of a gaseous mixture through a tube inserted into the trachea.
epidural anesthesia regional anesthesia produced by injection of the anesthetic agent into the epidural space. It may be performed by injection of the agent between the vertebral spines in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar regions. An old method was caudal anesthesia, which involved injecting the agent into the sacral hiatus. Called also epidural block.
general anesthesia a state of unconsciousness produced by anesthestic agents, with absence of pain sensation over the entire body and a greater or lesser degree of muscular relaxation; the drugs producing this state can be administered by inhalation, intravenously, intramuscularly, or rectally, or via the gastrointestinal tract.
gustatory anesthesia loss of the sense of taste.
hysterical anesthesia loss of tactile sensation occurring as a symptom of conversion disorder, often recognizable by its lack of correspondence with nerve distributions.
infiltration anesthesia local anesthesia produced by injection of the anesthetic solution directly into the area of terminal nerve endings. Called also infiltration analgesia.
inhalation anesthesia anesthesia produced by the respiration of a volatile liquid or gaseous anesthetic agent.
insufflation anesthesia anesthesia produced by introduction of a gaseous mixture into the trachea through a tube.
local anesthesia that produced in a limited area, as by injection of a local anesthetic or by freezing with ethyl chloride.
open anesthesia general inhalation anesthesia in which there is no rebreathing of the exhaled gases.
paraneural anesthesia perineural block.
paravertebral anesthesia regional anesthesia produced by the injection of a local anesthetic around the spinal nerves at their exit from the spinal column, and outside the spinal dura. Called also paravertebral block.
perineural anesthesia perineural block.
peripheral anesthesia lack of sensation due to changes in the peripheral nerves.
rectal anesthesia anesthesia produced by introduction of the anesthetic agent into the rectum.
refrigeration anesthesia cryoanesthesia.
regional anesthesia insensibility caused by interrupting the sensory nerve conductivity of any region of the body; the two primary types are field block, the encircling of an operative field by means of injections of a local anesthetic and nerve block, the making of injections in close proximity to the nerves supplying the area. Called also block.
saddle block anesthesia saddle block.
segmental anesthesia loss of sensation in a segment of the body due to a lesion of a nerve root.
spinal anesthesia
anesthesia due to a spinal lesion.
regional anesthesia produced by injection of the agent beneath the membrane of the spinal cord. Called also spinal block.
surgical anesthesia that degree of anesthesia at which operation may safely be performed.
tactile anesthesia loss of the sense of touch.
topical anesthesia that produced by application of a local anesthetic directly to the area involved.

ep·i·du·ral an·es·the·si·a

regional anesthesia produced by injection of local anesthetic solution into the peridural space.

epidural anesthesia

n.
Regional anesthesia produced by injection of a local anesthetic into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of the spine.

epidural anesthesia/analgesia

a type of anesthesia block in which a local anesthetic is injected into the epidural space surrounding the dural sack which contains CSF and the spinal cord. Epidurals are most commonly performed in the lumbar area by an injection of medication through a catheter placed in the epidural space. Analgesia is maintained by either intermittent dosing or a continuous infusion into the catheter. Close monitoring of vital signs, respirations, pain, and sensation is important. Epidurals have a wide application in anesthesia and pain management because of their safety and versatility. Epidural anesthesia or analgesia can be tailored to affect an area of the body from the lower extremities to the upper abdomen. Epidurals are often used for labor and birth and in postoperative pain management. The most common adverse effects include unintentional dural membrane puncture, postdural puncture headache, and hypotension from sympathetic nerve block and vascular dilation. Severe complications may include intravascular injection of local anesthetic and seizures, hematoma of the epidural space. See also epidural hematoma, regional anesthesia.
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Epidural anesthesia

ep·i·du·ral an·es·the·si·a

(ep'i-dūr'ăl an'es-thē'zē-ă)
Regional anesthesia produced by injection of local anesthetic solution into the peridural space.
Synonym(s): peridural anesthesia.
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EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA

epidural anesthesia

Anesthesia produced by injection of a local anesthetic into the peridural space of the spinal cord. Synonym: peridural anesthesia See: illustration
See also: anesthesia

Epidural anesthesia

A type of anesthesia that is injected into the epidural space of the spinal cord to numb the nerves leading to the lower half of the body.

anesthesia

loss of feeling or sensation. Artificial anesthesia may be produced by a number of agents capable of bringing about partial or complete loss of sensation. It is induced to permit the performance of surgery or other painful procedures. See also anesthetic.

balanced anesthesia
anesthesia that balances the depressing effects on the motor, sensory, reflex and mental aspects of nervous system function by the anesthetic agents. The philosophy encourages the use of several agents, each designed to affect one of the functions.
basal anesthesia
narcosis produced by preliminary medication so that the inhalation of anesthetic necessary to produce surgical anesthesia is greatly reduced.
block anesthesia
regional anesthesia. See also block.
caudal anesthesia
injection of an anesthetic into the sacral canal. See also caudal anesthesia.
central anesthesia
lack of sensation caused by disease of the nerve centers.
closed anesthesia
that produced by continuous rebreathing of a small amount of anesthetic gas in a closed system with an apparatus for removing carbon dioxide.
crossed anesthesia
loss of sensation on one side of the face and loss of pain and temperature sense on the opposite side of the body.
dissociated anesthesia, dissociation anesthesia
loss of perception of certain stimuli while that of others remains intact.
electric anesthesia
anesthesia induced by passage of an electric current.
endotracheal anesthesia
anesthesia produced by introduction of a gaseous mixture through a tube inserted into the trachea.
epidural anesthesia
see epidural anesthesia.
field block anesthesia
the anesthetic agent is injected around the boundaries of the area to be anesthetized, with no attempt to locate specific nerves.
frost anesthesia
abolition of feeling or sensation as a result of topical refrigeration produced by a jet of a highly volatile liquid.
general anesthesia
a state of unconsciousness produced by anesthestic agents, with absence of pain sensation over the entire body and a greater or lesser degree of muscular relaxation; the drugs producing this state can be administered by inhalation, intravenously, intramuscularly, or rectally, or via the gastrointestinal tract.
infiltration anesthesia
local anesthesia produced by injection of the anesthetic solution directly into the area of terminal nerve endings.
inhalation anesthesia
anesthesia produced by the respiration of a volatile liquid or gaseous anesthetic agent. Halothane, methoxyflurane, isoflurane, and a combination of nitrous oxide and oxygen are the common agents in veterinary use.
insufflation anesthesia
anesthesia produced by introduction of a gaseous mixture into the trachea through a slender tube.
intrasynovial anesthesia
injection of a local anesthetic agent into a joint or tendon sheath.
intrathecal anesthesia
introduction of local anesthetic agent into the spinal fluid by penetration of the spinal dura. Causes anesthesia in the tissues supplied by the nerves in the spinal cord zone that has been anesthetized. There is danger of injury to the cord and the technique is litte used in veterinary surgery. Called also subarachnoid, subdural or intradural anesthesia/analgesia.
intravenous anesthesia
the anesthetic agent, e.g. a barbiturate, is administered intravenously to effect. If an intravenous catheter is used, 'topping-up' amounts can also be administered as required.
intravenous regional anesthesia
irreversible anesthesia
the loss of sensory and motor function of the part is permanent. The local injection of isopropyl alcohol has this effect.
local anesthesia
that produced in a limited area, as by injection of a local anesthetic or by freezing with ethyl chloride. Includes infiltration, nerve block, field block, surface, regional, retrograde regional, spinal, epidural.
mixed anesthesia
that produced by use of more than one anesthetic agent.
nerve block anesthesia
the anesthetic agent is deposited from a syringe and needle as close to the target nerve as possible. Several injections are often made if the landmarks for the location of the nerve are not outstanding.
obstetrical anesthesia
see obstetrical anesthesia.
open anesthesia
general inhalation anesthesia in which there is no rebreathing of the expired gases.
parasacral anesthesia
regional anesthesia produced by injection of a local anesthetic around the sacral nerves as they emerge from the sacral foramina.
paravertebral anesthesia
regional anesthesia produced by the injection of a local anesthetic around the spinal nerves at their exit from the spinal column, and outside the spinal dura.
parenteral anesthesia
anesthesia induced by the injection of the agent, either intravenously, intraperitoneally, subcutaneously or intramuscularly.
peripheral anesthesia
lack of sensation due to changes in the peripheral nerves.
permeation anesthesia
analgesia of a body surface produced by application of a local anesthetic, most commonly to the mucous membranes. Called also surface anesthesia.
rectal anesthesia
anesthesia produced by introduction of the anesthetic agent into the rectum.
refrigeration anesthesia
local anesthesia produced by applying a tourniquet and chilling the part to near freezing temperature. Called also cryoanesthesia.
regional anesthesia
insensibility caused by interrupting the sensory nerve conductivity of any region of the body: produced by (1) field block, encircling the operative field by means of injections of a local anesthetic; or (2) nerve block, making injections in close proximity to the nerves supplying the area.
saddle block anesthesia
the production of anesthesia in the region of the body corresponding roughly with the areas of the buttocks, perineum and inner aspects of the thighs, by introducing the anesthetic agent low in the dural sac.
segmental anesthesia
loss of sensation in a segment of the body due to a lesion of a nerve root.
spinal anesthesia
1. anesthesia due to a spinal lesion.
2. anesthesia produced by injection of the agent beneath the membrane of the spinal cord.
splanchnic anesthesia
block anesthesia for visceral operation by injection of the anesthetic agent into the region of the celiac ganglia.
subarachnoid anesthesia
see intrathecal anesthesia (above).
surface anesthesia
the application of a local anesthetic agent in solution, as in eye drops, or as a jelly, cream or ointment. The use of cold materials which freeze the superficial layers of skin is not much used in veterinary surgery. See also permeation anesthesia (above).
surgical anesthesia
that degree of anesthesia at which operation may safely be performed. There is muscular relaxation, and coordinated movements, consciousness and pain sensations disappear; many of the spinal neuromuscular reflexes are abolished.
topical anesthesia
that produced by application of a local anesthetic directly to the area involved.

epidural

pertaining to or emanating from the dura mater.

epidural abscess
see brain abscess, spinal abscess.
epidural anesthesia
produced by injecting local anesthetic agent into the epidural space of the spinal canal at the first or second intercoccygeal space. Injection of a small amount of anesthetic agent produces anesthesia of the perineum without paralysis of the hindlimbs, a low epidural. Injection of a large volume at the same site produces a high epidural. The same effect is achieved by injecting the anesthetic at the lumbosacral or first interlumbar space. Called also extradural anesthesia, or analgesia, extradural block, epidural block.
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Epidural anesthesia in a cow. By permission from Parkinson TJ, England GCW, Arthur GH, Arthur's Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics, Saunders, 2001
epidural block
see epidural anesthesia (above).
segmental dorsolumbar epidural block
injection of local anesthetic into the epidural space between the first two lumbar vertebrae produces anesthesia of both flanks. Used for standing abdominal surgery in horses or cattle.
References in periodicals archive ?
Whilst hemodynamic stability during surgery is an individual, multidimensional analysis, research has shown that this type of epidural anesthesia has the least impact on changing the vital signs and target organ perfusion pressures.
INJEXTM technology could have positive outcomes in epidural anesthesia for patients.
The intention of this study is to compare the early results of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB) surgery under general anesthesia versus epidural anesthesia with emphasis on subjective variables such as pain and patient satisfaction after the procedure.
Method: Using a prospective, randomized, non-blinded clinical trial design, 82 patients scheduled for lower extremity revascularization surgery were randomized to either epidural anesthesia and postoperative analgesia or general anesthesia and systemic opioid analgesia during and after surgery.
SAN FRANCISCO -- Data from recent studies call into question the recommendation that physicians delay administration of epidural anesthesia to nulliparous women in labor, Michael P.
This, in turn, leads to a higher rate of cesarean births and a lower rate of spontaneous vaginal birth compared to women who did not receive epidural anesthesia.
Health care providers' attitudes and beliefs about intervention choices for the laboring woman play a role in their decisions to use or not use epidural anesthesia.
Interventions such as cesarean delivery and the use of epidural anesthesia were significantly less common in the collaborative care group than among women who received traditional care.
The team has been working with IBM's mobile database product, DB2 Everyplace, to archive and transmit patient responses to epidural anesthesia after surgery.
Add to that the recent increase in cesarean sections, the almost epidemic use of epidural anesthesia, and the climate of fear about childbirth which is propagated by the media in popular television shows, and you have a recipe for confusion about what constitutes safety and intelligent protocols in modern childbirth in America.