epidemic typhus


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ep·i·dem·ic ty·phus

typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and spread by body lice; marked by high fever, mental and physical depression, and a macular and papular eruption; lasts for about 2 weeks and occurs when large crowds are brought together and personal hygiene standards are at a low ebb; recrudescences can occur.

epidemic typhus

an acute severe rickettsial infection characterized by prolonged high fever, headache, and a dark maculopapular rash that covers most of the body. The causative organism, Rickettsia prowazekii, is transmitted indirectly as a result of the bite of the human body louse or squirrel flea or louse; the pathogen is contained in feces of the louse and enters the body tissues as the bite is scratched. Disease is manifested by the abrupt onset of an intense headache and a fever reaching 40° C (104° F) beginning after an incubation period of 1 week. The rash follows on the fifth day of onset. Complications may include vascular collapse, renal failure, pneumonia, or gangrene. Mortality rate is as high as 40% depending on preexisting clinical conditions. Treatment may include antipyretics and supportive symptomatic care. Health care workers are at risk of acquiring this infection from louse bites or louse feces. Also called classic typhus, European typhus, jail fever, louse-borne typhus. Compare murine typhus. See also Brill-Zinsser disease, Rickettsia, typhus.

ep·i·dem·ic ty·phus

(ep'i-dem'ik tī'fŭs)
Disease caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and spread by body lice; marked by high fever, mental and physical depression, and a macular and papular eruption; lasts about 2 weeks and occurs when large crowds are brought together and personal hygiene is poor; recrudescences can occur.
Synonym(s): jail fever.

ep·i·dem·ic ty·phus

(ep'i-dem'ik tī'fŭs)
Typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii spread by body lice; marked by high fever, mental and physical depression, and a macular and papular eruption.
Synonym(s): prison fever typhus.

epidemic

a level of disease occurrence in an animal population which is significantly greater than usual; only occasionally present in the population, widely diffused and rapidly spreading. The disease is clustered in space and time. The word has common usage in veterinary science in preference to the more accurate, epizootic.

common source epidemic
see point epidemic (below).
epidemic curve
see epidemic curve.
epidemic diarrhea of infant mice
see murine epizootic diarrhea.
epidemic hyperthermia
poisoning by Neotyphodium (Acremonium) coenophialum; called also fescue summer toxicosis.
multiple event epidemic
when the epidemic begins at about the same time in a number of places, e.g. when a poisoned batch of feed is supplied to a number of farms.
point epidemic
when the epidemic begins at one central point, with a large number of animals coming in contact with the source over a short time; a very rapid form of spread with a number of cases presenting with the same stage of the disease at the one time, indicating the single source of the pathogen.
propagated epidemic, propagative epidemic, propagating epidemic
outbreaks in which the disease propagates in one or more initial cases and then spreads to others, a relatively slow method of spread.
epidemic tremor
epidemic typhus
see rickettsiaprowazeki.

typhus

acute infectious diseases caused by Rickettsia which are usually transmitted from infected rats and other rodents to humans by lice, fleas, ticks and mites.

Abyssinian tick typhus
canine typhus, canine tick typhus
see canine ehrlichiosis.
epidemic typhus
see rickettsiaprowazeki.
Kenya typhus
murine typhus
a disease of humans caused by Rickettsia typhae; rats and cats are the mammalian reservoir.
Queensland tick typhus
caused by Rickettsia australis. See queensland tick typhus.
Sao Paulo typhus
scrub typhus
caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Wild rodents and occasionally dogs may be hosts.
References in periodicals archive ?
An influx of starving persons without money, jobs, or shelter into urban areas in Mexico might have amplified the crowded and unsanitary conditions necessary for historical outbreaks of epidemic typhus.
Substantial evidence has been found for the role of drought in epidemic typhus during 1655-1918 in Mexico.
Outbreak of epidemic typhus associated with trench fever in Burundi.
Autochtonous epidemic typhus associated with Bartonella quintana bacteremia in a homeless person.
Brill-Zinsser disease in a patient following infection with sylvatic epidemic typhus associated with flying squirrels.
How Charles Nicolle of the Pasteur Institute discovered that epidemic typhus is transmitted by lice: reminiscences from my years at the Pasteur Institute in Paris.
List common symptoms and signs of sylvatic epidemic typhus
Describe the management of suspected sylvatic epidemic typhus
Which of the following statements about the transmission of sylvatic epidemic typhus (ST) is most accurate?
Flying squirrels and their ectoparasites: disseminators of epidemic typhus.
Epidemic typhus rickettsiae isolated from flying squirrels.
Epidemic typhus in the United States associated with flying squirrels.