EFNA2

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EFNA2

A gene on chromosome 19p13.3 that encodes ephrin-A2, a cell surface GPI-bound ligand for the Eph family of tyrosine kinase receptors, which are crucial for migration, repulsion and adhesion during neuronal, vascular and epithelial development. EFNA2, with the EPHA2 receptor, may play a role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. It binds to EPHA3, EPHA4 and EPHA5; it interacts with and activates EPHA8.
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They learned that in the areas where stem cells were sleeping, astrocytes were producing high levels of two related molecules -- ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A3.
The team also found that astrocytes in the hippocampus produce not only much lower levels of ephrin-A2 and ephrin-A3, but also release a protein named sonic hedgehoc that, when added in culture or injected into the brain, stimulates neural stem cells to divide and become new neurons.
These findings identify a key pathway that controls neural stem cell growth in the adult brain and suggest that it may be possible to reactivate the dormant regenerative potential by adding sonic hedgehoc, or blocking ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3," says Dr.
For the calibration curves for ephrin-A2 and EphA8, Human Reference RNA was pooled 1:1 with RNA from fetal human brain (Clontech).
Interestingly, except for EphA8 and ephrin-A2, all members of the family were expressed in all investigated healthy tissues, but the relative amounts of the transcripts varied considerably.
Ephrin-A3 and -B3 were preferentially expressed in the brain, whereas ephrin-A2 and -A4 expression was highest in the colon.