enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

assay

 [as´a]
determination of the purity of a substance or the amount of any particular constituent of a mixture.
biological assay bioassay; determination of the potency of a drug or other substance by comparing the effects it has on animals with those of a reference standard.
CH50 assay a test of total complement activity as the capacity of serum to lyse a standard preparation of sheep red blood cells coated with antisheep erythrocyte antibody. The reciprocal of the dilution of serum that lyses 50 per cent of the erythrocytes is the whole complement titer in CH50 units per milliliter of serum.
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) any enzyme immunoassay using an enzyme-labeled immunoreactant (antigen or antibody) and an immunoadsorbent (antigen or antibody bound to a solid support). A variety of methods are used for measuring the unknown concentration, such as either competitive binding between the labeled reactant and unlabeled unknown or a sandwich technique in which the unknown antigen binds both the immunoadsorbent and labeled antibody. One of the uses of ELISA is to screen blood for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus; a positive result indicates probable exposure to the virus and possibly that the virus is in the blood. Since false-positives can occur, a back-up test is used to confirm positive findings.
 ELISA: With antigen capture ELISA, the wells are coated with antibody to the virus. The sample containing virus (1) is added and, after washing several times, enzyme conjugated to an antibody to the virus is added (2). Finally, after a further cycle of washing, the enzyme's substrate (3) is added. A colored product is formed if the viral antigen is present in the sample (4). From Hart and Shears, 1997.
microhemagglutination assay–Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP) a Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay using microtechniques; used in the detection of syphilis.
radioreceptor assay a radioligand assay in which a radiolabeled hormone is used to measure the concentration of specific cellular receptors for the hormone in tissue specimens, an example being radioassay of estrogen receptors in breast tissue.
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay thyroid-stimulating hormone test.
Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) a treponemal antigen serologic test for syphilis using tanned sheep red blood cells coated with antigen from the Nichol's strain of Treponema pallidum and treated patient serum; it is similar in sensitivity and specificity to the FTA-ABS test. This test is not useful for individuals who have had syphilis in the past.

en·zyme-linked im·mu·no·sor·bent as·say (ELISA),

an in vitro binding assay in which an enzyme and its substrate (rather than a radioactive substance) serve as the indicator system; in positive test results, the two yield a colored or other easily recognizable substance; tests are made in wells in polystyrene or other material to which immunoglobulins or antigenic preparations readily adsorb; the enzyme is linked to known immunoglobulin (or antigen) and in positive test results remains in the well as part of the antigen-antibody complex available to react with its substrate when added.

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

a laboratory technique for detecting specific antigens or antibodies by using enzyme-labeled immunoreactants and a solid-phase binding support, such as a test tube. A number of different enzymes can be used, including carbonic anhydrase, glucose oxidase, and alkaline phosphatase. Labeling is done by covalently binding the enzyme to the test substance through an enzyme-protein coupling agent such as glutaraldehyde. Products of the reaction may be detected by fluorometry or photometry. ELISA is nearly as sensitive as radioimmunoassay and more sensitive than complement fixation, agglutination, and other techniques.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. An immunoenzymatic assay used to measure antigens and antibodies which approaches the sensitivity of RIA
Pros Lower cost, simpler equipment, faster ‘turn-around time’, and none of the problems inherent in handling radioactive substances

en·zyme-linked im·mu·no·sor·bent as·say

(ELISA) (en'zīm-lingkt im'yū-nō-sōr'bĕnt as'ā)
A sensitive method for serodiagnosis of specific infectious diseases; an in vitro competitive binding assay in which an enzyme and its substrate rather than a radioactive substance serve as the indicator system; in positive test results, the two yield a colored or other easily recognizable substance; the enzyme is linked to known immunoglobulin (or antigen) and in positive test results remains as part of the antigen-antibody complex available to react with its substrate when added.

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

See ELISA TEST.

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

a procedure for measuring the formation of ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN complexes adsorbed to a solid surface. An ENZYME system is linked to the complex so that after washing, the amount of enzyme activity is proportional to the amount of antigen or antibody present.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

A diagnostic blood test used to screen patients for AIDS or other viruses. The patient's blood is mixed with antigen attached to a plastic tube or bead surface. A sample of the patient's blood serum is added, and excess proteins are removed. A second antibody coupled to an enzyme is added, followed by a chemical that will cause a color reaction that can be measured by a special instrument.
Mentioned in: AIDS Tests, Giardiasis

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (enˑ·zīm-linkd′ imˈ·myun·ō·sorˑ·bnt aˑ·say),

n technique used to identify particular antibodies or antigens using enzyme-labeled immunoreactants. Reaction products are recorded by photometry or fluorometry. Commonly used to diagnose HIV infections.
Enlarge picture
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
References in periodicals archive ?
Recombinant VP7-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Colorado tick fever virus.
Recombinant VP6-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Eyach virus (genus Coltivirus).
Laboratory diagnosis of two scrub typhus outbreaks at Camp Fuji, Japan in 2000 and 2001 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, rapid flow assay, and Western blot assay using outer membrane 56 kDa recombinant proteins.
section]) Also positive for anti-WNV immunoglobulin M by antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies to West Nile virus in multiple avian species.
This epigenetic 'histone code' can be probed by antibodies in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).
Both the first-and second-generation screens are ELISAs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
NEW YORK -- New enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays that detect a protein on the surface of the Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete may significantly curtail the need for confirmatory Western blotting in the serologic diagnosis of Lyme disease, Dr.
Individual HDM allergens were measured using monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) as described by Chapman et al.
Fluorescent in situ hybridization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are also widely used.
Part two reviews the range of detection methods from the use of antibodies in immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and the use of lateral flow devices.
Greer, the largest provider of allergy testing and immunotherapy products for veterinary practices in the United States, introduces the availability of Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays (ELISA) for detection of allergen-specific IgE in the serum of dogs and cats.

Full browser ?