1 mm) was observed in the entomophilous
species Lessingianthus roseus (Mart.
The high frequency of hummingbird visits to melittophilous and generalised entomophilous
species at PSP may be explained by the high frequency of species exhibiting these pollination syndromes at the study site (91.
According to Stanley and Linskens (1974) and Jay (1986) workers choose which pollen to collect not by their nutritive value, age, moisture, content, or colour, but on the basis of the odour and the physical configuration of the pollen grains, although many of the pollen species collected by honeybee foragers (some with high percentage frequency and high percentage occurrence) had a psilated exine (with a smooth surface), without spines or other structures typical of entomophilous
tepejilote than for the scarce entomophilous
climbing palm C.
Most vegetables from the Brassicaceae family, which are commercially exploited, are represented by hybrids whose seed production depends on entomophilous
pollination (Syafaruddin et al.
maculata), where spontaneous selfing is common, but overall, the flowers of most Mediterranean orchid species are entomophilous
baldensis are strongly analogous to those seen in the entomophilous
Rhynchospora Vahl sect.
Ericaceae in temperate and subtropical latitudes are usually entomophilous
, with bees seeking nectar, collecting pollen, or both.
and pollination modes (trochilophilous, chiropterophilous, entomophilous
, autogamous, unspecific), is particularly well suited for studying the relationship of such species attributes to range size.
2000b), autogamy perhaps provides an alternative to the presumed entomophilous
pollination system of colonizers.
Second, in entomophilous
species, elaioplasts produce large amounts of lipids in their stroma, which are released into the cytoplasm through the plastid envelopes prior to tapetal plasma membrane disruption (Heslop-Harrison, 1968; Dickinson & Lewis, 1973; Pacini & Juniper, 1979b; Reznickova & Willemse, 1980, 1981; Reznickova & Dickinson, 1982; Keijzer & Willemse, 1988b; Murgia et al.
Relationships of taxa and taxonomic distribution of simple stigmas suggested by the present analysis, supplemented with data on floral emergence, insect visitation, and pollen sculpturing, suggest that the earliest grasses were at least partially entomophilous