It is an amine and about 90% of body serotonin is present in enterochromaffin
cells of gut mucosa.
Over 95% of 5-HT is synthesized in the enterochromaffin
cells of the intestine; other synthetic sites include the raphe nuclei of the brain and the neuroendothelial cells that line the lung.
Gut microbes promote colonic serotonin production through an effect of short-chain fatty acids on enterochromaffin
Chronic acid suppression caused by PPIs results in high pH which stimulates G cells in gastric antrum, causing hypergastrinaemia and inducing hyperplasia of enterochromaffin
like (ECL) cells.
The normal biliary tree shows very small numbers of focally distributed enterochromaffin
cells in the gallbladder neck, large bile ducts, and hepatic hilum.
Serotonin antagonists were developed through modifications in the antiemetic metoclopramide, and work by selectively blocking the serotonin receptors both centrally - in the hypothalamus, the chemoreceptor trigger zone and the cerebral cortex and peripherally in the enterochromaffin
cells of the intestinal mucosa.
In 1937, 5-HT has been found in the enterochromaffin
cells of the gastrointestinal tract, and was named enteramine because of its believed implications in the intestinal smooth muscle contraction.
Methyl syringate has been established as a specific and selective activator of TRPA1, which is expressed in sensory neurons, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, enterochromaffin
cells, and lung epithelial cells, indicating diverse roles.
Mast cells, basophils, neurons and enterochromaffin
cells carry out synthesis of histamine.
Two cells of interest in the brain-gut axis are pinealocytes and enterochromaffin
Identification of enteramine, the specific hormone of the enterochromaffin
cell system, as 5-hydroxytryptamine.
Stress induced somatic hypoalgesia mediated by descending pain inhibitory pathways involving opioidergic, glutaminergic, and serotonergic systems can be accompanied by a stress induced visceral hyperalgesia indirectly mediated by sympathetic and/or parasympathetic nerves stimulating the release of chemicals from mast and enterochromaffin
like (ECL) cells within the gut wall which sensitizes the visceral afferent terminals.