enkephalin


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enkephalin

 [en-kef´ah-lin]
either of two pentapeptides, composed of four identical amino acids and either leucine or methionine, referred to as leu-enkephalin and met-enkephalin. The enkephalins function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators at many locations in the brain and spinal cord and are involved with pain perception, movement, mood, behavior, and neuroendocrine regulation; they are also found in nerve plexuses and exocrine glands of the gastrointestinal tract.

enkephalin

/en·keph·a·lin/ (en-kef´ah-lin) either of two pentapeptides (leu-enkephalin and met-enkephalin) occurring in the brain and spinal cord and also in the gastrointestinal tract; they have potent opiate-like effects and probably serve as neurotransmitters.

enkephalin

(ĕn-kĕf′ə-lĭn)
n.
Either of two closely related pentapeptides having opiate qualities and occurring in the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of the body.

enkephalin

[enkef′əlin]
Etymology: Gk, enkepalos, brain, in, within
one of two pain-relieving pentapeptides produced in the body, located in the pituitary gland, brain, and GI tract. Axon terminals that release enkephalins are concentrated in the posterior horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord, in the central part of the thalamus, and in the amygdala of the limbic system of the cerebrum. Enkephalins function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators and inhibit neurotransmitters in the pathway for pain perception, thereby reducing the emotional as well as the physical impact of pain. Methionine-enkephalin and isoleucine-enkephalin are each composed of five amino acids, four of which are identical in both compounds. These two neuropeptides can depress neurons throughout the central nervous system. Although it is not known exactly how these neuropeptides function, the enkephalins are natural pain killers and may be involved, with other neuropeptides, in the development of psychopathological behavior in some cases. Compare endorphin.

enkephalin

pentapeptide binding to specific brain cell receptor sites, including opiate receptors

enkephalin

(enkef´əlin),
n one of two pain-relieving pentapeptides produced in the body.

enkephalin

either of two naturally occurring pentapeptides (methionine enkephalin and leucine enkephalin) isolated from the brain, which have potent opiate-like effects and probably serve as neurotransmitters. They are classified as endorphins.
References in periodicals archive ?
An initial analysis of the results from the 28 day double-blind main study period shows that during day 3 to 14 following a single dose of study drug, the group that received NP2 Enkephalin reported on average no better improvement in pain score than the placebo treated group.
Striatal enkephalin and dynorphin opioid systems mediate reward and negative affect, respectively, and are relevant to addiction disorders.
The study and the analysis of the data is still ongoing and it is yet too early to determine what the best way forward is for the development of NP2 Enkephalin and the NTDDS platform respectively.
For example, [delta]-receptor antagonists decrease alcohol consumption, and an inhibitor of the enzyme that breaks down enkephalins (i.
This serendipitous observation of markedly increased plasma methionine-enkephalin in a CRPS patient undergoing cardiac surgery more than a year after a Colles fracture suggests an overactive enkephalin opioid system.
After the four week blinded study period all patients are offered up to two doses of active NP2 Enkephalin in an unblinded study extension.
We will await the results from the Phase II study with NP2 Enkephalin before we begin to seek partners actively, although we are continuously in contact with various stakeholders.
Copper deficiency has been shown under experimental conditions to lower enkephalin levels, thus affecting the endogenous control of pain perception.
Martone ME, Armstrong DM, Young SJ, Groves PM (1992) Ultrastructural examination of enkephalin and substance P input to cholinergic neurons within the neostriatum.
The most advanced project is the drug candidate NP2 Enkephalin, which is being evaluated in a Phase II study with 32 patients who suffer from severe and chronic cancer pain.
The most advanced project is the drug candidate NP2 Enkephalin for the treatment of pain, which during the past year has shown positive results in a Phase I study in cancer pain and is currently being evaluated in a Phase II study with patients who suffer from severe and chronic cancer pain.
The top priority right now is the Company's ongoing US Phase II study with the NTDDS-based drug candidate NP2 Enkephalin for the treatment of pain caused by cancer.