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Septic shock due to release of endotoxins by gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides in the cell walls that are released during both reproduction and destruction of the bacteria. They are potent stimulators of inflammation, activating macrophages, B lymphocytes, and cytokines and producing vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, and activation of the complement and coagulation cascades. See: endotoxin; septic shock
See also: shock
pertaining to or possessing endotoxin.
a condition of acute peripheral circulatory failure due to derangement of circulatory control or loss of circulating fluid. It is marked by hypotension, coldness of the skin and tachycardia.
see anaphylactic shock.
hyaline globules composed of fibrin degradation products which act as microthrombi and cause hemorrhage and necrosis.
the loss and redistribution of fluid, electrolytes and plasma protein, increased blood viscosity and increased peripheral resistance that follow a severe burn contribute to shock.
classically associated with acute myocardial infarction in humans; in animals may be caused by intrinsic congestive heart failure, cardiac depression caused by anesthetic overdosage or other drugs with negative inotropism, rarely, thromboembolism.
shock due to breakdown of the physical equilibrium of the body colloids. Thought to cause anaphylactic shock due to the absorption of the colloids into the bloodstream.
see vasogenic shock (below).
see electrical injuries.
electric shock. See also electrical stunning.
caused by endotoxins, especially Escherichia coli. See also toxemic shock.
animals in shock develop changes in the gut including congestion and hemorrhage into the lumen.
shock due to reduced blood volume as a result of water deprivation, fluid loss due to diarrhea, vomiting, extensive burns, intestinal obstruction, whole blood loss.
a condition of circulatory insufficiency resulting from overdosage with insulin, which causes too sudden reduction of blood sugar. It is marked by tremor, weakness, convulsions and collapse.
shock which has reached the stage where irreparable damage has been done to tissues, e.g. liver, kidneys and treatment will not salvage the patient although it might prolong life for a long time.
animals in shock due to massive burns, septicemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), acute viral or bacterial pneumonias or trauma develop an acute respiratory distress syndrome. The pulmonary lesion is a nonspecific acute or subacute interstitial pneumonia.
a temporary cessation of function in nervous tissue caused by an acute insult such as trauma without the part having been directly or detectably damaged. The loss of function is only temporary, usually for a few minutes but it may last for several hours. There may be residual signs due to direct damage when the shock passes. Stunning by a lightning stroke is an example.
those organs, specific to each animal species, which respond to allergens circulating in the blood.
flaccid paralysis up and down the body from the site of the spinal cord lesion. Accompanied by a fall in skin temperature, vasodilatation and sweating. Signs disappear within an hour or two. There may be residual signs due to physical injury to tissue.
vasogenic shock, vasculogenic shock
shock exists because of the severe reduction in effective circulating blood volume caused by sequestration of blood and other fluids in the vascular system and their withdrawal from the circulating blood. Is the classical shock of traumatic injury, burns, uterine prolapse, extensive surgery.