Angiosperm seed maturation is a complex process resulting from the coordinated and concomitant growth and development of distinct structures: tegument, endosperm
, and embryo (Ingram, 2010; Kesavan, Song, & Seo, 2013).
rupture is the main limitation for germination of tomato seeds, weakening of the micropylar endosperm
surrounding the radicle tip appears to be required for radicle protrusion and is likely to involve cell-wall hydrolysis by hydrolytic enzymes (Bewley, 1997).
35]S]-methionine incorporation studies, 400 to 500 mg of freshly isolated endosperms
from field-grown ears were equilibrated for 30 min in 3 mL of aerated buffer osmoticum.
Dent corns have a central flour endosperm
surrounded by a flinty endosperm
that shrink at different rates as kernels dry, causing a dent to form in the top of each kernel Almost all hybrid field corns are dents, as are the most productive OP varieties.
Parent-specific gene expression and the triploid endosperm
Among the grain types, dent grains have a higher proportion of farinaceous endosperm
and are preferred as feed over hybrids with flint endosperm
(Piovesan, Oliveira, & Gewehr, 2011; Zilic, Milasinovic, Terzic, Barac, & Ignjatovic-Micic, 2011).
Starch Accumulation and Amylopectin Structure: As shown in Figure 2, temperature treatments during grain filling had a considerable influence on the total starch accumulation and apparent amylose content in rice endosperms
, with high temperature treatment exhibiting lower accumulation of total starch in rice endosperms
than low temperature treatment, irrespective of rice genotypes (Figure 2A).
On the other hand, if the ultimate goal of a breeding program is to increase endosperm
components, it is valuable to minimize the embryo size.
A water deficit induced increase in ABA may inhibit endosperm
cell division in kernels (Artlip et al.
were macerated with a mortar and pestle and placed in a Warning blender.
Studies by Ober and Setter (1992) indicated that the source of stress-induced ABA that accumulates in endosperms
during their period of cell division is the maternal tissues, not the filial tissues (endosperm
FW data were taken at the time of endosperm
preparation for FCM; nine endosperms
(three kernels per petri dish x three replicates) per HTT were weighed to determine endosperm