2004a) Symbiotic lifestyle expression by fungal endophytes
and the adaptation of plants to stress: unraveling the complexities of intimacy.
One way to avoid fescue toxicosisis to grow tall fescue with nontoxic strains of the fungal endophyte
The results, said Rodriguez, were dramatic: the endophytes
reduced water consumption of the plant by up to one half, and increased its growth, the number of seeds it produced, and how much it weighed by as much as 50 percent.
may possess beneficial properties.
A first-hand experience of bird strike several years ago got Pennell thinking about the possibility of using his research on endophytes
to develop a 'bird-scaring grass'.
More common in cattle and sometimes in sheep, the problem was caused by a batch of contaminated hay that saw fungi called endophytes
, found in the cells of ryegrass, produce toxins.
The research is aimed at reintroducing the 'good microbes', or endophytes
, back into the plant at an early stage, thus vaccinating it and offering increased natural defences before being planted in farmers' fields.
McCully ME (2001) Niches for bacterial endophytes
in crop plants: a plant biologist's view.
Meanwhile, Agricultural Research Service scientists in the US have found that certain fungal endophytes
or plant parasites that install themselves in nooks and crannies of plants keep disease-causing microbes at bay while not causing any harm to the plants.
Other approaches to bad bugs include beneficial nematodes (near-microscopic worms that release killing bacteria), milky spore disease (effective for Japanese beetle larvae) and grass seed enhanced with endophytes
(which secrete a bitter-tasting toxin).
are fungi that complete their life cycle within the host and remain symptomless during the vegetative phase of parasitism.
as a Driving Force in Land Plant Evolution: Evidence from the Fossil Record