endocrine pancreas


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Related to endocrine pancreas: Exocrine pancreas

endocrine pancreas

The part of the pancreas that reacts to signals from the vascular system by secreting hormones, including insulin–B cells, glucagon–A cells, somatostatin–D cells, pancreatic polypeptide–PP cells, gastrin, etc Embryology The EP may arise embryologically from the neuroendocrine system. See Endocrinologist, Endocrinology. Cf Exocrine pancreas.

pancreas

a large, elongated, racemose gland located in the anterior abdomen between the liver, kidneys, stomach, spleen and duodenum.
The pancreas is composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissue. The acini secrete digestive enzymes, and small ductules leading from the acini secrete ions, mainly sodium and bicarbonate. The combined product, pancreatic juice, enters a long pancreatic duct and from there is transported duct to the duodenum. The pancreatic juice contains enzymes for the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. The bicarbonate ions in the pancreatic secretion help neutralize the acidic chyme that is passed along from the stomach to the duodenum.
The endocrine functions of the pancreas are related to the islets of Langerhans which occur throughout the pancreas. These small islands contain three major types of cells: the alpha, beta and delta cells. The alpha cells secrete the hormone glucagon, which elevates blood sugar. The beta cells secrete insulin, which affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. The delta cells secrete somatostatin, the functions of which are not fully understood, but it is known that it can inhibit the secretion of both glucagon and insulin and may act as a controller of metabolic processes. The somatostatin produced by the delta cells of the pancreas is the same as that produced by the hypothalamus as an inhibitor of the release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland.

pancreas disease
pancreatic atrophy of post-smolt Atlantic salmon caused by a togavirus infection; clinical signs include anorexia, emaciation. Called also sleeping disease.
endocrine pancreas
see pancreas (above).
exocrine pancreas
see pancreas (above).
References in periodicals archive ?
In current study it is seen that sodium cyclamate induces histomorphological changes in endocrine pancreas.
The current study proved a statistical significant affects on endocrine pancreas by showing an increase in area of islets of langerhans.
Apoptosis participates in the remodeling of the endocrine pancreas in the neonatal rat.
Insulin, Oral Hypoglycemics Agents, and the Pharmacology of the Endocrine Pancreas.
In: The endocrine pancreas, Raven Press, New York, pp.
Although the endocrine pancreas is not considered a classic estrogen target, estrogen effects on insulin and glucagon secretion and receptors of a classical and nonclassical nature are present in islet cells (Nadal et al.
In contrast to exocrine pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors are rare, indolent tumors of the endocrine pancreas with an incidence of 5-10 per million worldwide annually.
Postnatal Development of the Endocrine Pancreas of Lactating Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)
Microadenomatosis of the endocrine pancreas in patients with and without the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome.
Adding to the list of prospective therapeutic cells already produced from hESCs, Geron scientists demonstrated the differentiation of hESCs into islet-like cells similar to those found in the endocrine pancreas, which could potentially be used for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes.
The patients in the 2 reported cases of purely endocrine heterotopia presented clinically with melena and were found to have ulcerated gastric polypoid projections of ectopic endocrine pancreas.
The execution of this License Agreement with Geron will enable PanCel to more quickly develop a cellular therapy for Type 1 diabetes and contribute to the development of our bioartificial endocrine pancreas," said David McCarty, President/CEO of PanCel.