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Related to endocrine pancreas: Exocrine pancreas
endocrine pancreasThe part of the pancreas that reacts to signals from the vascular system by secreting hormones, including insulin–B cells, glucagon–A cells, somatostatin–D cells, pancreatic polypeptide–PP cells, gastrin, etc Embryology The EP may arise embryologically from the neuroendocrine system. See Endocrinologist, Endocrinology. Cf Exocrine pancreas.
a large, elongated, racemose gland located in the anterior abdomen between the liver, kidneys, stomach, spleen and duodenum.
The pancreas is composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissue. The acini secrete digestive enzymes, and small ductules leading from the acini secrete ions, mainly sodium and bicarbonate. The combined product, pancreatic juice, enters a long pancreatic duct and from there is transported duct to the duodenum. The pancreatic juice contains enzymes for the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. The bicarbonate ions in the pancreatic secretion help neutralize the acidic chyme that is passed along from the stomach to the duodenum.
The endocrine functions of the pancreas are related to the islets of Langerhans which occur throughout the pancreas. These small islands contain three major types of cells: the alpha, beta and delta cells. The alpha cells secrete the hormone glucagon, which elevates blood sugar. The beta cells secrete insulin, which affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. The delta cells secrete somatostatin, the functions of which are not fully understood, but it is known that it can inhibit the secretion of both glucagon and insulin and may act as a controller of metabolic processes. The somatostatin produced by the delta cells of the pancreas is the same as that produced by the hypothalamus as an inhibitor of the release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland.
pancreatic atrophy of post-smolt Atlantic salmon caused by a togavirus infection; clinical signs include anorexia, emaciation. Called also sleeping disease.
see pancreas (above).
see pancreas (above).