endocrine pancreas

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Related to endocrine pancreas: Exocrine pancreas

endocrine pancreas

The part of the pancreas that reacts to signals from the vascular system by secreting hormones, including insulin–B cells, glucagon–A cells, somatostatin–D cells, pancreatic polypeptide–PP cells, gastrin, etc Embryology The EP may arise embryologically from the neuroendocrine system. See Endocrinologist, Endocrinology. Cf Exocrine pancreas.


a large, elongated, racemose gland located in the anterior abdomen between the liver, kidneys, stomach, spleen and duodenum.
The pancreas is composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissue. The acini secrete digestive enzymes, and small ductules leading from the acini secrete ions, mainly sodium and bicarbonate. The combined product, pancreatic juice, enters a long pancreatic duct and from there is transported duct to the duodenum. The pancreatic juice contains enzymes for the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. The bicarbonate ions in the pancreatic secretion help neutralize the acidic chyme that is passed along from the stomach to the duodenum.
The endocrine functions of the pancreas are related to the islets of Langerhans which occur throughout the pancreas. These small islands contain three major types of cells: the alpha, beta and delta cells. The alpha cells secrete the hormone glucagon, which elevates blood sugar. The beta cells secrete insulin, which affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. The delta cells secrete somatostatin, the functions of which are not fully understood, but it is known that it can inhibit the secretion of both glucagon and insulin and may act as a controller of metabolic processes. The somatostatin produced by the delta cells of the pancreas is the same as that produced by the hypothalamus as an inhibitor of the release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland.

pancreas disease
pancreatic atrophy of post-smolt Atlantic salmon caused by a togavirus infection; clinical signs include anorexia, emaciation. Called also sleeping disease.
endocrine pancreas
see pancreas (above).
exocrine pancreas
see pancreas (above).
References in periodicals archive ?
We used pancreatic [alpha]-cells within freshly isolated islets of Langerhans, the physiologic unit of the endocrine pancreas.
When implanted under the skin, the PEC-01 cells are specifically designed to mature and further differentiate into insulin-producing beta and other endocrine cells that regulate blood glucose in a manner similar or identical to the islets that normally comprise the endocrine pancreas.
Adding to the list of prospective therapeutic cells already produced from hESCs, Geron scientists demonstrated the differentiation of hESCs into islet-like cells similar to those found in the endocrine pancreas, which could potentially be used for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes.
The execution of this License Agreement with Geron will enable PanCel to more quickly develop a cellular therapy for Type 1 diabetes and contribute to the development of our bioartificial endocrine pancreas," said David McCarty, President/CEO of PanCel.
Steven Russell, MD, PhD, Investigator at the Massachusetts General Hospital Diabetes Research Center in Boston, MA and Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School will be joined by Edward Damiano, PhD, Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering at Boston University to describe the coming of age of the bionic endocrine pancreas.
Without PAX genes, the eyes, kidneys, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and other tissues cannot be generated in the developing fetus.