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1. Secreting internally, most commonly into the systemic circulation; of or pertaining to such secretion. Compare: paracrine, autocrine.
2. The internal or hormonal secretion of a ductless gland. Compare: endocrine hormones.
3. Denoting a gland that furnishes an internal secretion.
[endo- + G. krinō, to separate]


/en·do·crine/ (en´do-krin, en´do-krīn)
1. secreting internally.
2. pertaining to internal secretions; hormonal. See also under system.


(ĕn′də-krĭn, -krēn′)
1. Secreting internally.
2. Of or relating to endocrine glands or the hormones secreted by them.
1. The secretion of an endocrine gland; a hormone.
2. An endocrine gland.


[en′dəkrēn, -krīn]
Etymology: Gk, endon + krinein, to secrete
pertaining to a process in which a group of cells secretes into the blood or lymph circulation a substance (for example, hormone) that has a specific effect on tissues in another part of the body.


Change of life, climacteric, 'time of life'  Gynecology The cessation of menstrual activity due to failure to form ovarian follicles, which normally occurs age 45–50 Clinical Menstrual irregularity, vasomotor instability, 'hot flashes', irritability or psychosis, ↑ weight, painful breasts, dyspareunia, ↑/↓ libido, atrophy of urogenital epithelium and skin, ASHD, MI, strokes and osteoporosis–which can be lessened by HRT. See Estrogen replacement therapy, Hot flashes, Male menopause, Premature ovarian failure, Premature menopause. Cf Menarche.
Menopause–”…what a drag it is getting old.” Jagger, Richards
Bladder Cystourethritis, frequency/urgency, stress incontinence
Breasts ↓ Size, softer consistency, sagging
Cardiovascular Angina, ASHD, CAD
Endocrine Hot flashes
Mucocutaneous Atrophy, dryness, pruritus, facial hirsutism, dry mouth
Neurologic Psychological, sleep disturbances
Pelvic floor Uterovaginal prolapse
Skeleton  Osteoporosis, fractures, low back pain
Vagina Bloody discharge, dyspareunia, vaginitis
Vocal cords Deepened voice
Vulva  Atrophy, dystrophy, pruritus


High blood pressure Cardiovascular disease An abnormal ↑ systemic arterial pressure, corresponding to a systolic BP of > 160 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of 95 mm Hg and graded according to intensity of ↑ diastolic BP; HTN affects ± 60 million in the US Workup Evaluation of HTN requires clinical Hx for Pt, family Hx, 2 BP determinations, funduscopy, ID of bruits in neck & abdominal aorta, evaluation of peripheral edema, peripheral pulses and residual neurologic defects in stroke victims, chest films to determine cardiac size and lab parameters to rule out causes of secondary HTN Risk factors Race–blacks more common, ♂, family history of HTN, obesity, defects of lipid metabolism, DM, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, electrolyte imbalance–eg, ↑ sodium, phosphorus, ↓ potassium, tin Treatment Diet–eg, sodium restriction, ↓ calories, alcohol and cigarettes–the weight gain accompanying smoking cessation tends to offset the minimal ↓ in BP, calcium supplements, lifestyle manipulation–eg, biofeedback, ↑ exercise; antihypertensives–eg, diuretics–benzothiadiazines, loop diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, sympatholytic agents–central and peripheral-acting α-adrenergics, β-adrenergics, mixed α- and β-blockers, direct vasodilators, ACE inhibitors–the preferred agent to use ab initio, dihydropiridine CCBs. See ACCT, ACE inhibitor, Borderline hypertension, Borderline isolated systolic hypertension, Calcium channel blocker, Drug-induced hypertension, Essential hypertension, Exercise hypertension, Familial dyslipemic hypertension, Gestational hypertension, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Isolated systolic hypertension, Malignant hypertension, MRC, Obetension, Paradoxic hypertension, Pill hypertension, Pregnancy-induced hypertension, Pseudohypertension, Pulmonary hypertension, Refractory hypertension, Renovascular hypertension, SHEP, STOP-Hypertension, TAIM, TOHP-1, TOMHSTyramine hypertension, White coat hypertension.
Class I–mild Diastolic pressure 90-104 mm Hg
Class II–moderate Diastolic pressure 105-119 mm Hg
Class III–severe Diastolic pressure > than 120 mm Hg
Hypertension types
Essential hypertension Idiopathic HTN The major form comprising 90% of all HTN
Malignant hypertension A sustained BP > 200/140 mm Hg, resulting in arteriolar necrosis, most marked in the brain, eg. cerebral hemorrhage, infarcts, and hypertensive encephalopathy, eyes, eg papilledema and hypertensive retinopathy and kidneys, eg acute renal failure and hypertensive nephropathy; if malignant HTN is uncorrected or therapy refractory, Pts may suffer a hypertensive crisis in which prolonged high BP causes left ventricular hypertrophy and CHF
Paroxysmal hypertension Transient or episodic waves of ↑ BP of any etiology, punctuated by periods of normotension, typical of pheochromocytoma
Portal hypertension ↑ portal vein pressure caused by a backflow of blood through splenic arteries, resulting in splenomegaly and collateral circulation, resulting in esophageal varices and/or hemorrhoids; PH may be intra- or extrahepatic, and is often due to cirrhosis, or rarely portal vein disease, venous thrombosis, tumors or abscesses
Pulmonary hypertension A condition defined as a 'wedge' systolic/diastolic pressure > 30/20 mm Hg–Normal: 18-25/12-16 mm Hg, often secondary to blood stasis in peripheral circulation, divided into passive, hyperkinetic, vasoocclusive, vasoconstrictive and secondary forms. See Pulmonary HTN.
Renovascular hypertension see there.
Secondary hypertension
Cardiovascular Open heart surgery, coarctation of aorta, ↑ cardiac output–anemia, thyrotoxicosis, aortic valve insufficiency
Cerebral ↑ Intracranial pressure
Endocrine Mineralocorticoid excess, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, glucocorticoid excess, eg Cushing syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly
Gynecologic Pregnancy, oral contraceptives
Neoplasia Renin-secreting tumors, pheochromocytoma
• ↓ Peripheral vascular resistance AV shunts, Paget's disease of bone, beri-beri
Renal disease Vascular, parenchymal


1. Secreting internally, most commonly into the systemic circulation; of or pertaining to such secretion.
Compare: paracrine
2. The internal or hormonal secretion of a ductless gland.
3. Denoting a gland that furnishes an internal secretion.
[endo- + G. krinō, to separate]


A system of organs that produces chemicals that go into the bloodstream to reach other organs whose functioning they affect.


related to internal secretions: adj describing (1) glands or organs that produce and secrete hormones directly into the blood stream; (2) tissues not in the form of discrete glands that produce and secrete hormones into local body fluids or into the blood stream; (3) the secretions of such glands or tissues; (4) the whole-body system or function that involves the production, secretion and action of hormones. See also hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract


Secreting internally, most commonly into the systemic circulation; of or pertaining to such secretion.


adj refers to either the gland that secretes directly into the systemic circulation or the substance secreted.
endocrine disease,
n an abnormal condition caused by some malfunction of an endocrine gland.
endocrine system,
n the interrelated nature of the physiologic function of endocrine glands.


1. secreting internally.
2. pertaining to internal secretions; hormonal.

endocrine cells
are either gathered together in specific endocrine glands or scattered diffusely through other tissue, e.g. in the walls of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas in which the cells are clustered together into islands.
endocrine dermatosis
skin changes accompanying many diseases of the endocrine glands such as hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism and hypopituitarism.
endocrine glands
included are the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands, gonads, pancreas and paraganglia.
endocrine system
organs or groups of cells that secrete regulatory substances that are released directly into the circulation (hormone). The endocrine or hormonal system and the nervous system are the two major control systems of the body, and their functions are interrelated. Hormonal activity is mostly concerned with regulating metabolic activities by controlling the rates at which chemical reactions take place within cells, the transport of substances across the cell membrane, and activities related to growth and reproduction. The word hormone is applied to substances released by the endocrine glands that have physiological effects on target organs (which can be other endocrine glands) and tissues distant from the gland. There are, however, local hormones (autacoids) secreted at the site of the tissue being affected, for example, acetylcholine and serotonin.
endocrine tumor
adenoma or carcinoma; usually only one cell type, that of the normal tissue, but may be more than one type of cell capable of secreting more than one hormone.

Patient discussion about endocrine

Q. Can women think strange when pregnant? Is it due to hormonal imbalance? Please help me; I’m 21 and this is my first pregnancy. I am in the first trimester. Yet I don’t feel morning sickness but feel tired throughout the day. Can women think strange when pregnant? Is it due to hormonal imbalance?

A. First, congratulations for your first pregnancy, Elizabeth..

You need not to worry about you're not being nausea during this first trimester. Although morning sickness is a common symptoms of first trimester pregnancy, it doesn't always happened to every pregnant moms. So all you need to do is stay healthy always, by consuming healthy foods, and if you're a working woman, you need to limit your daily works, because first trimester is quite crucial. First trimester is a phase when your fetus is developing its organ, and the attachment to its mother's uterus is becoming strong.

In second trimester, usually there will be less problems, the nausea feeling will often fade away by itself. One other important thing is to get yourself checked to your Ob-GYN doctor (antenatal care), to make sure your pregnancy is okay, and to monitor your baby's development.

In case you're thinking strange, I don't think it is a significant problem. Maybe it's just because this is your very first expe

More discussions about endocrine
References in periodicals archive ?
Peptidergic innervation and endocrine cells of insect midgut.
The resulting increase in the number of endocrine cells may act as a predisposing factor to the development of neuroendocrine tumors.
The results demonstrated for the first time that nearly pure in vitro-produced endocrine cells can function in vivo.
Hyperplastic and neoplastic endocrine cells of the pancreas in aspiration biopsy.
These methods further strengthen ViaCyte's intellectual property platform, providing alternative ways to produce pancreatic progenitor and endocrine cells that have potential for use in cell replacement therapies.
Scattered endocrine cells have been reported to be present in exocrine pancreatic carcinomas, including ductal, mucinous cystic, and acinar cell carcinomas.
GPR119 has been found to be expressed mainly in the endocrine cells in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.
It is believed that Cholecystokinin is a small proteinaceous hormone like substance that is released into the blood after food intake (by endocrine cells lining the small intestine) and causes appetite suppression.
When implanted under the skin, the PEC-01 cells are designed to mature and further differentiate into insulin-producing beta and other endocrine cells that regulate blood glucose in a manner similar or identical to the islets that normally comprise the endocrine pancreas.
PYY is produced by specialized endocrine cells (L-cells) in the gut after a person eats and is believed to trigger the feeling of satiety, or fullness.
The unique design of our proprietary gene delivery technology makes it possible to effectively introduce genes into many difficult to manipulate cells, including hematopoietic cells and endocrine cells.
Islets of Langerhans, also known as pancreatic endocrine cells, control the insulin production in the body.