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1. Secreting internally, most commonly into the systemic circulation; of or pertaining to such secretion. Compare: paracrine, autocrine.
2. The internal or hormonal secretion of a ductless gland. Compare: endocrine hormones.
3. Denoting a gland that furnishes an internal secretion.
[endo- + G. krinō, to separate]


/en·do·crine/ (en´do-krin, en´do-krīn)
1. secreting internally.
2. pertaining to internal secretions; hormonal. See also under system.


(ĕn′də-krĭn, -krēn′)
1. Secreting internally.
2. Of or relating to endocrine glands or the hormones secreted by them.
1. The secretion of an endocrine gland; a hormone.
2. An endocrine gland.


[en′dəkrēn, -krīn]
Etymology: Gk, endon + krinein, to secrete
pertaining to a process in which a group of cells secretes into the blood or lymph circulation a substance (for example, hormone) that has a specific effect on tissues in another part of the body.


Change of life, climacteric, 'time of life'  Gynecology The cessation of menstrual activity due to failure to form ovarian follicles, which normally occurs age 45–50 Clinical Menstrual irregularity, vasomotor instability, 'hot flashes', irritability or psychosis, ↑ weight, painful breasts, dyspareunia, ↑/↓ libido, atrophy of urogenital epithelium and skin, ASHD, MI, strokes and osteoporosis–which can be lessened by HRT. See Estrogen replacement therapy, Hot flashes, Male menopause, Premature ovarian failure, Premature menopause. Cf Menarche.
Menopause–”…what a drag it is getting old.” Jagger, Richards
Bladder Cystourethritis, frequency/urgency, stress incontinence
Breasts ↓ Size, softer consistency, sagging
Cardiovascular Angina, ASHD, CAD
Endocrine Hot flashes
Mucocutaneous Atrophy, dryness, pruritus, facial hirsutism, dry mouth
Neurologic Psychological, sleep disturbances
Pelvic floor Uterovaginal prolapse
Skeleton  Osteoporosis, fractures, low back pain
Vagina Bloody discharge, dyspareunia, vaginitis
Vocal cords Deepened voice
Vulva  Atrophy, dystrophy, pruritus


High blood pressure Cardiovascular disease An abnormal ↑ systemic arterial pressure, corresponding to a systolic BP of > 160 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of 95 mm Hg and graded according to intensity of ↑ diastolic BP; HTN affects ± 60 million in the US Workup Evaluation of HTN requires clinical Hx for Pt, family Hx, 2 BP determinations, funduscopy, ID of bruits in neck & abdominal aorta, evaluation of peripheral edema, peripheral pulses and residual neurologic defects in stroke victims, chest films to determine cardiac size and lab parameters to rule out causes of secondary HTN Risk factors Race–blacks more common, ♂, family history of HTN, obesity, defects of lipid metabolism, DM, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, electrolyte imbalance–eg, ↑ sodium, phosphorus, ↓ potassium, tin Treatment Diet–eg, sodium restriction, ↓ calories, alcohol and cigarettes–the weight gain accompanying smoking cessation tends to offset the minimal ↓ in BP, calcium supplements, lifestyle manipulation–eg, biofeedback, ↑ exercise; antihypertensives–eg, diuretics–benzothiadiazines, loop diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, sympatholytic agents–central and peripheral-acting α-adrenergics, β-adrenergics, mixed α- and β-blockers, direct vasodilators, ACE inhibitors–the preferred agent to use ab initio, dihydropiridine CCBs. See ACCT, ACE inhibitor, Borderline hypertension, Borderline isolated systolic hypertension, Calcium channel blocker, Drug-induced hypertension, Essential hypertension, Exercise hypertension, Familial dyslipemic hypertension, Gestational hypertension, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Isolated systolic hypertension, Malignant hypertension, MRC, Obetension, Paradoxic hypertension, Pill hypertension, Pregnancy-induced hypertension, Pseudohypertension, Pulmonary hypertension, Refractory hypertension, Renovascular hypertension, SHEP, STOP-Hypertension, TAIM, TOHP-1, TOMHSTyramine hypertension, White coat hypertension.
Class I–mild Diastolic pressure 90-104 mm Hg
Class II–moderate Diastolic pressure 105-119 mm Hg
Class III–severe Diastolic pressure > than 120 mm Hg
Hypertension types
Essential hypertension Idiopathic HTN The major form comprising 90% of all HTN
Malignant hypertension A sustained BP > 200/140 mm Hg, resulting in arteriolar necrosis, most marked in the brain, eg. cerebral hemorrhage, infarcts, and hypertensive encephalopathy, eyes, eg papilledema and hypertensive retinopathy and kidneys, eg acute renal failure and hypertensive nephropathy; if malignant HTN is uncorrected or therapy refractory, Pts may suffer a hypertensive crisis in which prolonged high BP causes left ventricular hypertrophy and CHF
Paroxysmal hypertension Transient or episodic waves of ↑ BP of any etiology, punctuated by periods of normotension, typical of pheochromocytoma
Portal hypertension ↑ portal vein pressure caused by a backflow of blood through splenic arteries, resulting in splenomegaly and collateral circulation, resulting in esophageal varices and/or hemorrhoids; PH may be intra- or extrahepatic, and is often due to cirrhosis, or rarely portal vein disease, venous thrombosis, tumors or abscesses
Pulmonary hypertension A condition defined as a 'wedge' systolic/diastolic pressure > 30/20 mm Hg–Normal: 18-25/12-16 mm Hg, often secondary to blood stasis in peripheral circulation, divided into passive, hyperkinetic, vasoocclusive, vasoconstrictive and secondary forms. See Pulmonary HTN.
Renovascular hypertension see there.
Secondary hypertension
Cardiovascular Open heart surgery, coarctation of aorta, ↑ cardiac output–anemia, thyrotoxicosis, aortic valve insufficiency
Cerebral ↑ Intracranial pressure
Endocrine Mineralocorticoid excess, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, glucocorticoid excess, eg Cushing syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly
Gynecologic Pregnancy, oral contraceptives
Neoplasia Renin-secreting tumors, pheochromocytoma
• ↓ Peripheral vascular resistance AV shunts, Paget's disease of bone, beri-beri
Renal disease Vascular, parenchymal


1. Secreting internally, most commonly into the systemic circulation; of or pertaining to such secretion.
Compare: paracrine
2. The internal or hormonal secretion of a ductless gland.
3. Denoting a gland that furnishes an internal secretion.
[endo- + G. krinō, to separate]


A system of organs that produces chemicals that go into the bloodstream to reach other organs whose functioning they affect.


Secreting internally, most commonly into the systemic circulation; of or pertaining to such secretion.


1. secreting internally.
2. pertaining to internal secretions; hormonal.

endocrine cells
are either gathered together in specific endocrine glands or scattered diffusely through other tissue, e.g. in the walls of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas in which the cells are clustered together into islands.
endocrine dermatosis
skin changes accompanying many diseases of the endocrine glands such as hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism and hypopituitarism.
endocrine glands
included are the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands, gonads, pancreas and paraganglia.
endocrine system
organs or groups of cells that secrete regulatory substances that are released directly into the circulation (hormone). The endocrine or hormonal system and the nervous system are the two major control systems of the body, and their functions are interrelated. Hormonal activity is mostly concerned with regulating metabolic activities by controlling the rates at which chemical reactions take place within cells, the transport of substances across the cell membrane, and activities related to growth and reproduction. The word hormone is applied to substances released by the endocrine glands that have physiological effects on target organs (which can be other endocrine glands) and tissues distant from the gland. There are, however, local hormones (autacoids) secreted at the site of the tissue being affected, for example, acetylcholine and serotonin.
endocrine tumor
adenoma or carcinoma; usually only one cell type, that of the normal tissue, but may be more than one type of cell capable of secreting more than one hormone.

Patient discussion about endocrine

Q. Can women think strange when pregnant? Is it due to hormonal imbalance? Please help me; I’m 21 and this is my first pregnancy. I am in the first trimester. Yet I don’t feel morning sickness but feel tired throughout the day. Can women think strange when pregnant? Is it due to hormonal imbalance?

A. First, congratulations for your first pregnancy, Elizabeth..

You need not to worry about you're not being nausea during this first trimester. Although morning sickness is a common symptoms of first trimester pregnancy, it doesn't always happened to every pregnant moms. So all you need to do is stay healthy always, by consuming healthy foods, and if you're a working woman, you need to limit your daily works, because first trimester is quite crucial. First trimester is a phase when your fetus is developing its organ, and the attachment to its mother's uterus is becoming strong.

In second trimester, usually there will be less problems, the nausea feeling will often fade away by itself. One other important thing is to get yourself checked to your Ob-GYN doctor (antenatal care), to make sure your pregnancy is okay, and to monitor your baby's development.

In case you're thinking strange, I don't think it is a significant problem. Maybe it's just because this is your very first expe

More discussions about endocrine
References in periodicals archive ?
Targeted endocrine function testing is indicated in women presenting with subfertility, bad obstetric history, and previous history of endocrine dysfunction.
Of particular concern is the proposal that EDCs must have a single known "mode of action," which "represents a fundamental misunderstanding of how endocrine signaling works by connecting different organ systems within the body," said Dr.
One of her demands was a shift in the emphasis in government chemical risk assessments from end points related solely to cancer to functional end points relevant to the endocrine system (Colborn 1995).
Now, pre- and perimenopausal women diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer should be offered a total of 10 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy.
This is what makes the proper functioning of the endocrine system so essential to multiple body mechanisms.
53 billion in 2012, will be prompted by wider adoption of endocrine test kits, launch of advanced diagnostic platforms, as well as increasing healthcare awareness and preference for rapid and user-friendly test platforms.
Alarm about endocrine disruptors once was a fringe scientific concern but increasingly has moved mainstream.
The opinion emphasises that a single test is not sufficient to decide whether a substance is an endocrine disruptor, and recommends carrying out several tests, which should then be "assessed together by experts in a weight-of-evidence approach".
The scientists compared gene expression and chromatin architecture-the structure of combined DN A and proteins that make up the nucleus of the cell, in which dynamic remodeling occurs at various stages of differentiation -in both primary human endocrine cells and hESC-derived cells.
EDC studies have shown that endocrine disruptors can cause adverse biological effects in animals, and low-level exposures also cause similar effects in human beings.
Endocrine glands are sometimes called "ductless glands" because they secrete their products (hormones) directly into the blood or into the interstitial space.
All jobs were coded for their likelihood of exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and patients' tumor pathology regarding endocrine receptor status was assessed.