The tests are also useful in that the end points
evaluated correspond to the biological processes in humans that one wishes to protect (e.
The role of biomarkers in drug discovery: overview of what defines a biomarker and how biomarkers can act as surrogate end points
in clinical trials.
These modifications allow the incorporation of standard microarray data in conjunction with conventional toxicological end points
The disadvantages of the fish GRA include the absence of any published data on gonadal recrudescence in OECD test species; unlike other approaches that seek to enhance existing regulatory test guidelines for testing endocrine disruptors (28), the GRA has no clear link to an existing regulatory protocol, and the practical use of end points
such as gamete quality and fecundity in such a screening assay incurs a high degree of interindividual variability because cyprinid fish have widely variable fecundity between breeding pairs, even within control populations.
Biomarkers of effect may be either early events on the direct pathway to disease or toxic end points
or predictors of disease or toxicity outside the direct pathway, i.
And though one might say that is the real end point
of all their efforts, Shenoy thinks they can do better.
Two of these standards efforts, in particular, are designed to help reduce latency at the end points
by lessening the impact of the TCP/IP transmission protocol that sits atop Ethernet.
In contrast, for in-office measurements at baseline, every 10-mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure raised the risk of the combined end points
by 18%, and each 10-mm Hg increase in diastolic pressure raised the risk by 11%.
Although, on the face of it, this may seem like a reasonable way to inject rigor into a complicated process, placing overly strict limitations on interpretation of gene expression data ensures that only the end points
now assessed by traditional toxicology tests will be the end points
considered in the future.
This system allows researchers to investigate questions about mechanisms by measuring functional end points
of estrogen action, such as prolactin secretion, which increases upon exposure to estrogen.
Specific end points
recommended for tracking include asthma and chronic respiratory diseases, and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
The studies are designed to capture changes in viral burden, T-cell counts and clinical end points