Japanese B encephalitis(redirected from encephalitis japonica)
Jap·a·nese B en·ceph·a·li·tis
an epidemic encephalitis or encephalomyelitis of Japan, Siberian Russia, and other parts of Asia; due to the Japanese B encephalitis virus (genus Flavivirus) and transmitted by mosquitoes; can occur as a symptomless, subclinical infection but may cause an acute meningoencephalomyelitis.
Jap·a·nese B en·ceph·a·li·tis(jap'ă-nēz' en-sef'ă-lī'tis)
An epidemic encephalitis or encephalomyelitis of Japan, Siberian Russia, and other parts of Asia; due to the Japanese B encephalitis virus (genus Flavivirus) and transmitted by mosquitoes; can occur as a symptomless, subclinical infection but may cause an acute meningoencephalomyelitis.
Japanese B encephalitisA brain inflammation caused by an ARBOVIRUS transmitted by culicine mosquitoes. The disease occurs mainly in South-east Asia but is spreading into India and can cause major epidemics with a high mortality rate. There is headache, stiff neck, fever, vomiting, tremors, muscle twitching, coma and death in 15% to 40%of cases. There is no specific treatment but an effective vaccine has been developed.
inflammation of the brain. Changes in vessel walls, as well as of nervous tissue, are almost a constant feature of encephalitis.
There are many types of encephalitis, depending on the causative agent and the structures involved. A large percentage of the cases are caused by viruses, some of them, e.g. equine encephalomyelitis, being transmitted from animals to humans. Clinically encephalitis is characterized by initial signs of nervous irritation including muscle tremor, excitement and convulsions, followed by a stage of loss of function characterized by weakness, paralysis, coma and death. The more acute and serious symptoms may include fever, delirium, convulsions, coma, and, in a significant number of patients, death.
Many encephalitides are accompanied by involvement of the spinal cord and are more correctly classified as encephalomyelitides. See also encephalomyelitis.
The etiologically or geographically specific diseases are listed under their specific titles. Human pathogens which sometimes infect animals include Central European, Far Eastern Russian tick-borne encephalitides, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease. Viruses isolated from asymptomatic cases of encephalomyelitis include Kunjun virus.
acute disseminated encephalitis
canine distemper encephalitis
a demyelinating encephalitis, most severe in the cerebellum and optic tracts, is a feature of infection by canine distemper virus.
seen in certain viral infections, e.g. canine distemper, caprine arthritis-encephalitis and visna of sheep.
equine herpesvirus encephalitis
see equine herpesvirus myeloencephalitis
see granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis.
see granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis.
Israeli turkey encephalitis
see Israeli turkey encephalomyelitis.
Japanese B encephalitis
believed to be primarily a disease of birds that are the source of infection for animals, including humans, pigs and horses. Transmission is by mosquito. Affected horses show a wide variety of signs including incoordination, excitability and blindness. Most cases recover. Ruminants show little clinical effect. Pigs are a major source of virus and extensive losses occur by way of encephalitis in young pigs and abortion and stillbirth in adult sows.
Murray Valley encephalitis
there is tentative evidence of clinically inapparent infection of horses in Australia with this flavivirus virus during an epidemic of the disease in humans.
Nipah virus encephalitis
occurred on the Malaysian peninsula as an epidemic in pig farmers. Pigs are the source of the virus which has antigenic relationship to Hendra virus.
old dog encephalitis
a chronic, progressive, sclerosing panencephalitis in mature dogs; characterized by motor and mental deterioration, blindness, pacing and circling. Believed to be caused by distemper virus, but there are distinct differences from distemper encephalitis.
see hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus disease of pigs.
an acute disease of the central nervous system seen in patients convalescing from infectious, usually viral, diseases.
acute encephalitis sometimes occurring after vaccination, mediated by immune mechanisms.
a tick-borne flavivirus disease of humans with serological but no clinical evidence of infection in nearby goats.
see Pug meningoencephalitis.
Ross River encephalitis
there is tentative evidence of clinically inapparent infection of horses in Australia with the causative mosquito-borne alphavirus virus of this human disease.
Russian spring-summer encephalitis
a similar and probably identical disease to the flavivirus that causes louping ill of sheep, occurring in central Europe. It is a disease of humans occurring in epidemics related to the prevalence of vector ticks in forests where the disease is most common. Lesions are present in organs other than the brain. The severity varies from mild to fatal.
St. Louis encephalitis
an arthropod-borne flavivirus infection, first observed in 1932 in Illinois. It is a serious pathogen of humans, but does not cause disease in animals.