encephalitides


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encephalitis

[ensef′əlī′tis] pl. encephalitides
Etymology: Gk, enkephalos, brain, itis, inflammation
an inflammatory condition of the brain. The cause is usually an arbovirus infection transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito, but it may be the result of lead or other poisoning or of hemorrhage. Certain protozoal infections such as toxoplasmosis can cause encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Postinfectious encephalitis occurs as a complication of another infection, such as chickenpox, influenza, or measles, or after smallpox vaccination. The condition is characterized by headache, neck pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting. Neurological disturbances, including seizures, personality change, irritability, lethargy, paralysis, weakness, and coma, may occur. The outcome depends on the cause, the age and condition of the person, and the extent of inflammation. Severe inflammation with destruction of nerve tissue may result in a seizure disorder, loss of a special sense or other permanent neurological problem, or death. Usually the inflammation involves the spinal cord and brain; hence, in most cases a more accurate term is encephalomyelitis. Compare meningitis. See also equine encephalitis.
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Herpes encephalitis

encephalitides

plural of encephalitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
1 years) with probable AD (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria); 39 patients with other neurological diseases (OND) (multiinfarct dementia, 11; multiple sclerosis, 18; neurodegenerative diseases, 6; viral encephalitides, 4); 21 HIV-1-infected patients (12 with AIDS dementia complex); and 30 patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for orthopedic surgery (healthy controls).
The differential diagnosis of classic rabies includes tetanus, delirium tremens, psychiatric disorders, hysteria, and other viral encephalitides.
Permission was granted for organ donation, because no specific pathogen had been detected and China's organ transplant policy allows for organ donations in cases of viral encephalitides without laboratory-confirmed pathogens.
Though most of the endemic encephalitides were well documented to be vectored by mosquitos of the genus Culex, the introduction of WNV galvanized the public health field with respect to the importance of controlling populations of these vectors.
Tick-borne encephalitides, dengue fever and plague are predicted to increase.
The disease is likely underdiagnosed because it mimics other viral encephalitides (e.
Examples of arboviral diseases include Colorado tick fever, the equine encephalitides, St.
Premortem diagnosis of rabies is difficult and relates to a number of hindering factors, including a nonspecific prodrome flulike illness, poor history of animal bite, lack of typical hydrophobia and hypersalivation, and presentation similar to other encephalitides.
Most encephalitides progress to seizure activity but do not cause muscle weakness.
Products in its near-term pipeline include multiplex panel assays for detecting the pathogens associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract infections, viral encephalitides, and hospital-acquired infections.
Markelov); Federal Budget Institute Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides, Moscow (A.