enamel

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enamel

 [e-nam´el]
the white, compact, and very hard substance covering and protecting the dentin of the crown of a tooth.
mottled enamel a chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluoride content when a child is in the time of tooth formation. It is characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. See also dental fluorosis.

e·nam·el

(ē-nam'ĕl), [TA]
The hard, glistening substance covering the coronal dentin of the tooth. In its mature form, it is composed of an inorganic portion made up of 90% hydroxyapatite and between 6% calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, and magnesium carbonate, the remainder (4%) being an organic matrix of protein and glycoprotein.
[M.E., fr. Fr. enamailer, to apply enamel, fr. en, on, + amail, enamel, fr. Germanic]

enamel

/enam·el/ (ĕ-nam´'l)
1. the glazed surface of baked porcelain, metal, or pottery.
2. any hard, smooth, glossy coating.
3. dental enamel; the hard, thin, translucent substance covering and protecting the dentin of a tooth crown and composed almost entirely of calcium salts.

mottled enamel  dental fluorosis: hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation; characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration.

enamel

(ĭ-năm′əl)
n.
Anatomy The hard, calcareous substance covering the exposed portion of a tooth.

e·nam′el·er, e·nam′el·ist n.

enamel

[inam′əl]
Etymology: OFr, esmail
the hard, white crystalline substance of the minerals hydroxyapatite and/or fluorapatite that forms the outermost covering of the clinical and anatomical crown of a tooth. It contains no nerves or blood vessels and is the hardest bony substance in the body. It is produced by epithelial cells called ameloblasts.

e·nam·el

(ĕ-nam'ĕl) [TA]
The hard, acellular, inert substance covering the tooth. In its mature form, it is composed of an inorganic portion made up of 90% hydroxyapatite and 6-8% calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, and magnesium carbonate, the remainder consisting of an organic matrix of protein and glycoprotein; structurally, it is made up of oriented rods each of which consists of a stack of rodlets encased in an organic prism sheath.
[M.E., fr. Fr. enamailer, to apply enamel, fr. en, on, + amail, enamel, fr. Germanic]

enamel

The hard outer covering of the crown of a tooth.

enamel

a substance consisting mainly of a calcium phosphate-carbonate salt, bound together by KERATIN, found on the crowns of teeth and the denticles of fish. It is formed from the EPITHELIUM of the mouth. See TOOTH.

Enamel

The hard, white, outer layer of the tooth.

e·nam·el

(ĕ-nam'ĕl) [TA]
Hard, glistening substance covering coronal dentin of tooth. In its mature form, composed of an inorganic portion made up of 90% hydroxyapatite and about 6% calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, and magnesium carbonate, with the remainder (4%) being an organic matrix of protein and glycoprotein.
Synonym(s): enamelum [TA] .
[M.E., fr. Fr. enamailer, to apply enamel, fr. en, on, + amail, enamel, fr. Germanic]

enamel

(inam´əl),
n 1. the hard, glistening tissue covering the anatomic crown of the tooth. It is composed mainly of hexagonal rods of hydroxyapatite, sheathed in an organic matrix (approximately 0.15%) and oriented with their long axes approximately at right angles to the surface.
n 2. the outermost layer or covering of the coronal portion of the tooth that overlies and protects the dentin.
enamel bonding,
enamel hypocalcification
n a hereditary condition in which the enamel of the tooth has formed without adequate amounts of mineralization, leaving the surface of the tooth brittle and often stained.

enamel

the white, compact and very hard substance covering and protecting the dentine of the crown of a tooth.

enamel bulge
the area of greatest diameter of a tooth, just external to the gum line, which acts to deflect food from the free gingival margin and the gingival crevice.
enamel epithelium
epithelium which creates a bell-shaped enamel organ, surrounding the dental papilla; the internal epithelium consists of columnar ameloblasts which secrete enamel.
enamel hypoplasia
incomplete or partial development; a common defect in dogs.
inherited enamel defect
an inherited absence of enamel from all teeth combined with excessive flexibility of joints in Holstein-Friesian cattle. The teeth are pink and obviously deficient in substance. A defect in collagen formation is probable.
enamel layer
the outermost layer of cells of the enamel organ.
mottled enamel
dental fluorosis; defective enamel, with a chalky white appearance or brownish stain, caused by excessive amounts of fluorine in drinking water and food preparations during the period of enamel calcification.
enamel organ
an epithelial cap over a dental papilla that develops into the enamel-producing organ. The shape of the enamel organ determines the shape of the tooth.
enamel points
sharp projections of enamel at the junction of the buccal and occlusal surfaces of a tooth. Seen most commonly in horses.
enamel rods
progressively mineralized glycoproteinaceous tubules, the basic structural units of enamel; enamel is acellular and consists of interrod material and rods,
enamel spot
remnant of the enamel cup in the center of an incisor tooth table in a horse.
Enlarge picture
Enamel spot. By permission from Sack W, Wensing CJG, Dyce KM, Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy, Saunders, 2002
enamel works
factories manufacturing enamels or using them extensively; sources of fluorine for pollution of pasture and water.
References in classic literature ?
They are a shining reproof to all low-grade German "ruby" enamels, so-called "boort" facings, and the dangerous and unsatisfactory alumina compounds which please dividend-hunting owners and turn skippers crazy.
This seemed as natural to Newland Archer as all the other conventions on which his life was moulded: such as the duty of using two silver- backed brushes with his monogram in blue enamel to part his hair, and of never appearing in society without a flower (preferably a gardenia) in his buttonhole.
But when, at length, the dragon-fly alighted on the tip of a reed, and, holding your breath the while, you were able to examine the long, gauze wings, the long enamel robe, the two globes of crystal, what astonishment you felt, and what fear lest you should again behold the form disappear into a shade, and the creature into a chimera
Here is the portrait," replied the bishop, handing the prisoner a miniature in enamel, on which Louis was depicted life-like, with a handsome, lofty mien.
So Bert grew up, filled with ideals of speed and enterprise, and became, so far as he became anything, a kind of bicycle engineer of the let's-have-a-look-at-it and enamel chipping variety.
In it was a thread-like gold chain with a tiny pink enamel heart as a pendant.
And a wonder it was to see; for its whole orb was a-shimmer with enamel and white ivory and electrum, and it glowed with shining gold; and there were zones of cyanus (2) drawn upon it.
The globular extremities of the branches are of a pearly texture, like the enamel of teeth, but so hard as just to scratch plate- glass.
Still, when it costs over five pounds--I didn't see it, but it was a lovely enamel pendant from a Bond Street shop.
Jos, although provided with some of the most splendid vests that Calcutta could furnish, thought he could not go to town until he was supplied with one or two of these garments, and selected a crimson satin, embroidered with gold butterflies, and a black and red velvet tartan with white stripes and a rolling collar, with which, and a rich blue satin stock and a gold pin, consisting of a five-barred gate with a horseman in pink enamel jumping over it, he thought he might make his entry into London with some dignity.
Agnes must have had a pretty bad time, but it would be almost worth it to go down to posterity in such enamel upon such gold.
Both of these drinking vessels hail from Russia and oer a fairly modern take on a traditional Russian craft: creating items out of silver and then decorating them with coloured enamels.