enamel

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enamel

 [e-nam´el]
the white, compact, and very hard substance covering and protecting the dentin of the crown of a tooth.
mottled enamel a chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluoride content when a child is in the time of tooth formation. It is characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. See also dental fluorosis.

e·nam·el

(ē-nam'ĕl), [TA]
The hard, glistening substance covering the coronal dentin of the tooth. In its mature form, it is composed of an inorganic portion made up of 90% hydroxyapatite and between 6% calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, and magnesium carbonate, the remainder (4%) being an organic matrix of protein and glycoprotein.
[M.E., fr. Fr. enamailer, to apply enamel, fr. en, on, + amail, enamel, fr. Germanic]

enamel

/enam·el/ (ĕ-nam´'l)
1. the glazed surface of baked porcelain, metal, or pottery.
2. any hard, smooth, glossy coating.
3. dental enamel; the hard, thin, translucent substance covering and protecting the dentin of a tooth crown and composed almost entirely of calcium salts.

mottled enamel  dental fluorosis: hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation; characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration.

enamel

(ĭ-năm′əl)
n.
Anatomy The hard, calcareous substance covering the exposed portion of a tooth.

e·nam′el·er, e·nam′el·ist n.

enamel

[inam′əl]
Etymology: OFr, esmail
the hard, white crystalline substance of the minerals hydroxyapatite and/or fluorapatite that forms the outermost covering of the clinical and anatomical crown of a tooth. It contains no nerves or blood vessels and is the hardest bony substance in the body. It is produced by epithelial cells called ameloblasts.

e·nam·el

(ĕ-nam'ĕl) [TA]
The hard, acellular, inert substance covering the tooth. In its mature form, it is composed of an inorganic portion made up of 90% hydroxyapatite and 6-8% calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, and magnesium carbonate, the remainder consisting of an organic matrix of protein and glycoprotein; structurally, it is made up of oriented rods each of which consists of a stack of rodlets encased in an organic prism sheath.
[M.E., fr. Fr. enamailer, to apply enamel, fr. en, on, + amail, enamel, fr. Germanic]

enamel

The hard outer covering of the crown of a tooth.

enamel

a substance consisting mainly of a calcium phosphate-carbonate salt, bound together by KERATIN, found on the crowns of teeth and the denticles of fish. It is formed from the EPITHELIUM of the mouth. See TOOTH.

Enamel

The hard, white, outer layer of the tooth.

e·nam·el

(ĕ-nam'ĕl) [TA]
Hard, glistening substance covering coronal dentin of tooth. In its mature form, composed of an inorganic portion made up of 90% hydroxyapatite and about 6% calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, and magnesium carbonate, with the remainder (4%) being an organic matrix of protein and glycoprotein.
Synonym(s): enamelum [TA] .
[M.E., fr. Fr. enamailer, to apply enamel, fr. en, on, + amail, enamel, fr. Germanic]

enamel

(inam´əl),
n 1. the hard, glistening tissue covering the anatomic crown of the tooth. It is composed mainly of hexagonal rods of hydroxyapatite, sheathed in an organic matrix (approximately 0.15%) and oriented with their long axes approximately at right angles to the surface.
n 2. the outermost layer or covering of the coronal portion of the tooth that overlies and protects the dentin.
enamel bonding,
enamel hypocalcification
n a hereditary condition in which the enamel of the tooth has formed without adequate amounts of mineralization, leaving the surface of the tooth brittle and often stained.

enamel

the white, compact and very hard substance covering and protecting the dentine of the crown of a tooth.

enamel bulge
the area of greatest diameter of a tooth, just external to the gum line, which acts to deflect food from the free gingival margin and the gingival crevice.
enamel epithelium
epithelium which creates a bell-shaped enamel organ, surrounding the dental papilla; the internal epithelium consists of columnar ameloblasts which secrete enamel.
enamel hypoplasia
incomplete or partial development; a common defect in dogs.
inherited enamel defect
an inherited absence of enamel from all teeth combined with excessive flexibility of joints in Holstein-Friesian cattle. The teeth are pink and obviously deficient in substance. A defect in collagen formation is probable.
enamel layer
the outermost layer of cells of the enamel organ.
mottled enamel
dental fluorosis; defective enamel, with a chalky white appearance or brownish stain, caused by excessive amounts of fluorine in drinking water and food preparations during the period of enamel calcification.
enamel organ
an epithelial cap over a dental papilla that develops into the enamel-producing organ. The shape of the enamel organ determines the shape of the tooth.
enamel points
sharp projections of enamel at the junction of the buccal and occlusal surfaces of a tooth. Seen most commonly in horses.
enamel rods
progressively mineralized glycoproteinaceous tubules, the basic structural units of enamel; enamel is acellular and consists of interrod material and rods,
enamel spot
remnant of the enamel cup in the center of an incisor tooth table in a horse.
Enlarge picture
Enamel spot. By permission from Sack W, Wensing CJG, Dyce KM, Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy, Saunders, 2002
enamel works
factories manufacturing enamels or using them extensively; sources of fluorine for pollution of pasture and water.
References in periodicals archive ?
Its top end was packed with enamellers, jewellers and die sinkers, but the retailers of its lower part merged into those of 'The Flat' of Lodge Road so as to form one of the major shopping thoroughfares in Old Brum.
The firm was founded in 1819 and went on to delight European connoisseurs ever afterwards with its wonderful timepieces where a fine watch was transformed through the brilliance of the enamellers and jewellers into an objet d'art.
The overwhelming bulk of this enamelling is Dutch and English (and at least some of that carded out in England was by Dutch craftsmen), but arguably the finest painting was by the Preissler family of enamellers, working in their native Bohemia and what is now Poland, and by an unidentified artist of probable German extraction active in Holland in the 1720s.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, pupils flocked to the school from local industry including engravers, enamellers, silversmiths and fine artists.
The artistry and skill of the enamellers of the Byzantine period were so famous in their own age that their work was known and prized all over medieval Europe.
Playing with Fire, at Bilston Craft Gallery from September 5, features 15 of the best enamellers in the country, selected by an internationally-respected panel.
These and other pieces, linked to Giles by factors to be examined in this article and another to appear in APOLLO later this year, place Giles, or possibly a member or members of his staff, amongst the finest decorators of eighteenth-century glass, alongside such celebrated enamellers as the Beilby family of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
The press, showroom and offices were on the ground floor; the jewellers, silversmiths and enamellers occupied the first floor and the carvers and carpenters were on the second floor.
She suggests that the inscriptions on these enamels identify a workshop, rather than individual enamellers, and that the Wallace Collection enamel might have been made there.
Enamellers often collected broken glasses from pubs and inns to grind them into the paste, but there were already, by the mid-1750s, suppliers selling coloured enamel powders already mixed.
Offices are also in the pipeline for the former M & S Powder Enamellers site in Greenhough Road, Lichfield.
There is no other place in the world where generations of talented die-sinkers, enamellers and other expert artists in the medallist and badge making business have produced so many and such a varied output.