emerging viruses


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emerging viruses

in epidemiology, a class of viruses that has long infected humans or animals but now has the opportunity to attain epidemic proportions due to human encroachment on tropic rainforests, increased international travel, burgeoning populations in less developed countries, and, possibly, mutations. Several viruses have been termed this way, including hemorrhagic viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, and Hantaan; the two rabieslike viruses Mokola and Duvenhage; rodent-borne Junin and Lassa viruses; and mosquito-borne dengue. Virologists speculate that the strain of HIV that causes AIDS may also fall into this category, having entered humans through contact with monkeys in central Africa, having possibly existed among monkey populations for some 50,000 years.
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A transmission of monkeypox virus to prairie dogs in the United States from giant Gambian rats that were imported from West Africa as pets, a transmission of Marburg and Ebola viruses to nonhuman primates from still-unknown reservoirs, and a transmission of H5N1 influenza virus from migratory ducks to chicken colonies on farms were fundamental causes of outbreaks of these newly emerging viruses in humans.
Animals are the most likely reservoir for these emerging viruses, according to the White House's "National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza.
Maria Zambon, head of virology at the Health Protection Agency, added: "We are worried that a new pandemic might turn out to be Force 10 on the Richter scale of new emerging viruses on humans.
The largemouth bass virus system may be a good general model for understanding the biology of other emerging viruses of wildlife, such as the West Nile virus, the Ebola virus and newly emerging viruses related to canine distemper.
But screening blood for these diseases won't detect emerging viruses, such as West Nile.
Its proprietary heuristics and fast scan engine help enable VOP modusMail to more accurately and quickly identify new viruses, including any low- to high-risk viruses such as Goner, Badtrans, Nimda and Sircam, VOP modusMail servers can be configured to automatically retrieve from Vircom as often as needed all definition updates to existing and emerging viruses.
The journal publishes invited review papers only and is divided into twelve annual sections, including viral genomics, antivirals and resistance, emerging viruses and virus evolution.
Oral interferon could be economically feasible for patients and logistically manageable in development programs in third-world countries primarily affected by influenza and other emerging viruses.
Dr Jewell said that the only defence against such infections is to improve global surveillance of emerging viruses and infections.
Among the topics discussed by this volume's 33 papers are the importance of ecological and phylogenetic conditions for the occurrence and frequency of sexual cannibalism, responses of humid tropical trees to rising carbon dioxide, the role of propagule pressure in biological invasions, nongenetic inheritance and its evolutionary implications, spontaneous mutation accumulation studies in evolutionary genetics, geologic and biologic controls on the evolution of reefs, molecular estimation of dispersal for ecology and population genetics, the origin and subsequent diversification of the angiosperm flower, the evolutionary genetics of emerging viruses, belowground herbivory and plant defenses, genetic consequences of range expansions, and the role of animal pollination in plant speciation.
Dr Solomon said: "I am pleased that the MRC appreciates the importance of emerging viruses.
emerging viruses, effective protection against polymorphic and macro viruses,

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