serum

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serum

 [se´rum] (pl. serums, se´ra) (L.)
the clear portion of any animal or plant fluid that remains after the solid elements have been separated out. The term usually refers to blood serum, the clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of the plasma that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells, and remains fluid after clotting of blood. Blood serum from persons or animals whose bodies have built up antibodies is called antiserum or immune serum. Inoculation with such an antiserum provides temporary, or passive, immunity against the disease, and is used when a person has already been exposed to or has contracted the disease. Diseases in which passive immunization is sometimes used include diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and gas gangrene.
antilymphocyte serum (ALS) antiserum derived from animals that have been immunized against human lymphocytes, a powerful nonspecific immunosuppressive agent that causes destruction of circulating lymphocytes.
antirabies serum antiserum obtained from the blood serum or plasma of animals immunized with rabies vaccine; used for postexposure prophylaxis against rabies if rabies immune globulin is unavailable.
blood grouping s's preparations containing particular antibodies against red cell antigens, used for blood typing. Those most commonly used are the anti-A and anti-B blood grouping serums used to determine ABO blood types and the anti-Rh blood grouping serums (anti-D, anti-C, anti-E, anti-c, and anti-e) used to determine Rh blood types.
serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) see aspartate transaminase.
serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) see alanine transaminase.
immune serum antiserum.
pooled serum the mixed serum from a number of individuals.
serum sickness a hypersensitivity reaction following the administration of foreign serum or other antigens; it is marked by urticarial rashes, edema, adenitis, joint pains, high fever, and prostration. Reactions to tetanus antitoxin derived from horse serum were especially common but are now rare owing to refinement of the antigenic components.
serum sickness syndrome a serum sickness–like hypersensitivity reaction occurring after the administration of certain drugs. It is marked clinically by low-grade fever, urticaria, facial edema, pain and swelling of the joints, and lymphadenopathy, and occasionally may be associated with neuritis of the brachial plexus, guillain-barré syndrome, periarteritis nodosa, and nephritis.

se·rum

, pl.

se·rums

,

se·ra

(sē'rum, -ŭmz, -ă), Avoid the colloquial or jargonistic use of this word in the sense of 'any biologic agent' ("allergy serum") or 'any injected drug' ("truth serum").
1. A clear, watery fluid, especially that moistening the surface of serous membranes, or exuded in inflammation of any of those membranes.
2. The fluid portion of the blood obtained after removal of the fibrin clot and blood cells, distinguished from the plasma in circulating blood. Sometimes used as a synonym for antiserum or antitoxin.
[L. whey]

serum

/se·rum/ (sēr´um) pl. serums, se´ra   [L.]
1. the clear portion of any liquid separated from its more solid elements.

antilymphocyte serum  (ALS) antiserum derived from animals immunized against human lymphocytes; a powerful nonspecific immunosuppressive agent that causes destruction of circulating lymphocytes.
antirabies serum  antiserum obtained from the blood serum or plasma of animals immunized with rabies vaccine; used for postexposure prophylaxis against rabies if rabies immune globulin is unavailable.
blood serum  the clear liquid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot completely, and is therefore blood plasma from which fibrogen has been removed during clotting.
foreign serum  heterologous s.
heterologous serum 
1. that obtained from an animal belonging to species different from that of the recipient.
2. that prepared from an animal immunized by an organism differing from that against which it is to be used.
homologous serum 
1. that obtained from an animal belonging to the same species as the recipient.
2. that prepared from an animal immunized by the same organism against which it is to be used.
immune serum  antiserum.
polyvalent serum  antiserum containing antibody to more than one kind of antigen.
pooled serum  the mixed serum from a number of individuals.

serum

(sîr′əm)
n. pl. serums or sera (sîr′ə)
1. The clear yellowish fluid obtained upon separating whole blood into its solid and liquid components after it has been allowed to clot. Also called blood serum.
2. Blood serum from the tissues of immunized animals, containing antibodies and used to transfer immunity to another individual.
3. Watery fluid from animal tissue, such as that found in edema.

serum

[sir′əm] pl. sera
Etymology: L, whey
1 the fluid portion of blood that remains subsequent to in-vitro clotting. Unlike plasma, serum lacks fibrinogen and several of the coagulation proteins.
2 any clear watery fluid that has been separated from its more solid elements, such as the exudate from a blister.
4 a vaccine or toxoid prepared from the serum of a hyperimmune donor for prophylaxis against a particular infection or poison.

serum

1. The fluid component of blood from which the coagulation factors have been removed. See Fetal bovine serum. Cf Plasma.
2. A protein-rich fluid that contains a high concentration of antibodies to a particular antigen of interest; convalescent sera–from an individual who has recuperated from a particular infection–eg, scarlet fever may be of use in treating an individual who is suffering from the same infection. See Acute phase serum, Antilymphocyte serum, Convalescent serum.

se·rum

, pl. sera, pl. serums (sēr'ŭm, -ă, -ŭmz )
1. A clear, watery fluid, especially that moistening the surface of serous membranes, or exuded in inflammation of any of those membranes.
2. The fluid portion of the blood obtained after removal of the fibrin clot and blood cells, distinguished from the plasma in circulating blood. Sometimes used as a synonym for antiserum or antitoxin.
[L. whey]

serum

The clear, straw-coloured fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot and then to stand. Serum is blood less the red cells and the proteins which form the clot. It contains many substances in solution including sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, albumin, globulins, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, hormones, urea, creatinine, uric acid and bilirubin.

serum

  1. see BLOOD SERUM.
  2. clear, watery animal fluid, especially that exuded by serous membranes.
  3. (also called

Serum

Serum is blood plasma with the blood clotting proteins removed. Serum is prepared by removing blood from the subject, allowing the blood naturally to form a blood clot, and then using a centrifuge to remove the red blood cells and the blood clot. The blood clot takes the form of an indistinct clump.

serum

the fluid that separates when a sample of blood coagulates after withdrawal from the body. Has the contents that were present in plasma, except for those that have taken part in the clotting process. Used for many biochemical investigations, and in the preparation of specific immunoglobulins for short-term prevention or urgent treatment of some infections in those who are not themselves immune. See also immunity.

serum

fluid portion of blood, i.e. remainder, after all cells and plasma proteins have been removed; forms inflammatory exudate

se·rum

, pl. sera, pl. serums (sēr'ŭm, -ă, -ŭmz ) Avoid the colloquial or jargonistic use of this word in the sense of 'any biologic agent' ("allergy serum") or 'any injected drug' ("truth serum").
1. Clear, watery fluid, especially that moistening the surface of serous membranes, or exuded in inflammation of any of those membranes.
2. Fluid portion of blood obtained after removal of fibrin clot and blood cells.
[L. whey]

serum (sir´um),

n the fluid component of the blood containing all stable constituents except fibrinogen. When blood is allowed to clot and stand, a clear yellowish fluid, the serum, separates.
serum accelerator globulin,
serum marker,
n a specific indicator found in a blood test that identifies a disease.
serum protein determination, electrophoretic,
n separation of serum protein fractions (albumin, α-globulin, β-globulin, and γ-globulin) based on their different isoelectric points and mobility in an electric field. Electrophoretic patterns and concentrations are of value in evaluating the hyperglobulinemias. Electrophoretic evaluation of serum protein abnormalities is usually related to moving-boundary or paper-strip separation patterns.
serum prothrombin conversion accelerator (SPCA)
serum sickness,
n an anaphylactoid or allergic reaction after injection of foreign serum; marked by urticarial rashes, edema, adenitis, arthralgia, high fever, and prostration.

serum

pl. sera, serums [L.] the clear portion of any animal or plant fluid that remains after the solid elements have been separated out. The term usually refers to blood serum, the clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of the plasma that does not contain fibrinogen or blood cells, and remains fluid after clotting of blood.
Blood serum from animals whose bodies have built up antibodies is called antiserum or immune serum. Inoculation with such an antiserum provides temporary, or passive, immunity against the disease.

serum albumin mastitis test
a high concentration of serum albumin in milk indicates the presence of mastitis in the quarter.
antilymphocyte serum
serum breaks
in classical swine fever (hog cholera) vaccination when a serum-simultaneous vaccination program is not effective and it is assumed that the hyperimmune serum was ineffective.
serum clot time
see prothrombin consumption test.
serum enzymes
enzymes of individual tissues are released into the blood when the tissue is damaged or when there is much activity in it. The levels are used as a measure of activity or injury.
serum-fast
resistant to the effects of serum.
serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
immune serum
serum from an immunized animal, containing specific antibody or antibodies.
serum osmolality
a measure of the number of dissolved particles per unit of water in serum. See also serum osmolality.
pooled serum
the mixed serum from a number of animals.
serum protein
see serum protein.
serum sickness
a group of immediate or antibody-mediated hypersensitivity reactions (also referred to as type III hypersensitivities) that includes Arthus reaction, serum sickness and immune complex diseases. The pathogenesis involves formation of bulky antibody-antigen complexes in the walls of small blood vessels; the complexes fix complement and cause necrosis and thrombus formation. There is infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells from which lysosomal enzymes are released.
serum-simultaneous immunization
an outdated method of vaccination, most popular at one time in the vaccination of pigs against classical swine fever (hog cholera). Live virus and antiserum to the virus were injected into the patient simultaneously; breakdowns in the system were frequent, leading to severe outbreaks of the target disease.
serum thymic factor
a humoral factor enhancing T lymphocyte responsiveness.