The generation of superoxides and electrophiles
is a result of antioxidants and xenobiotics metabolism.
Without a competitive electrophile
decomposition pathway, N-alkylation of the amine that is released by carbamate ester can proceed to a relatively high extent.
where NE+ is the external nitrogen-containing electrophile
and R- is the organic group initially [sigma]-bonded to chromium.
In formulating possible molecular mechanisms of presynaptic toxicity, we considered the fact that ACR was an electrophile
that might produce neurotoxicity by binding to nucleophilic cysteine sites on proteins (Cavins and Friedman 1968; Friedman et al.
An active field of study is the formation of adducts accompanying electrophilic substitution of aromatic compounds, involving attack on the electrophile
at an ipso (substituted) position.
Coffee, broccoli and spices are strong inducers of electrophile
response element-dependent transcription in vitro and in vivo--studies in electrophile
response element transgenic mice.
These studies suggest that tea constituents inhibit the enzyme(s) which generate the aryl nitrenium ion and directly scavenge the reactive electrophile
, whereas CHL complexes with heterocyclic amines and facilitates the degradation of active metabolites.
Toxicological studies have found associations between inflammation and exposure to diesel exhaust constituents, such as the organic electrophile
BACKGROUND: Toxicological studies have correlated inflammatory effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with its organic, constituents, such as the organic electrophile
Both NRF1 and NRF2 form heterodimers with small Maf or other bZIP proteins and bind to cis-acting element(s) termed antioxidant or electrophile
response elements (AREs; also known as EpREs) in the proximal promoters of target genes (Motohashi et al.
Paracetamol in larger doses produces liver necrosis after undergoing bio-activation to a toxic electrophile
, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone-imine (NAPQI) by cytochrome [P.
Molecular mechanism activating Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in regulation of adaptive response to electrophiles