electron microscope


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microscope

 [mi´kro-skōp]
an instrument used to obtain an enlarged image of small objects and reveal details of structure not otherwise distinguishable.
The light path of a darkfield microscope. From Hart and Shears, 1997.
acoustic microscope one using very high frequency ultrasound waves, which are focused on the object; the reflected beam is converted to an image by electronic processing.
binocular microscope one with two eyepieces, permitting use of both eyes simultaneously.
compound microscope one consisting of two lens systems whereby the image formed by the system near the object is magnified by the one nearer the eye.
darkfield microscope one so constructed that illumination is from the side of the field so that details appear light against a dark background.
electron microscope one in which an electron beam, instead of light, forms an image for viewing, allowing much greater magnification and resolution. The image may be viewed on a fluorescent screen or may be photographed. Types include scanning and transmission electron microscopes.
fluorescence microscope one used for the examination of specimens stained with fluorochromes or fluorochrome complexes, e.g., a fluorescein-labeled antibody, which fluoresces in ultraviolet light.
light microscope one in which the specimen is viewed under ordinary illumination.
operating microscope one designed for use in performance of delicate surgical procedures, e.g., on the middle ear or small vessels of the heart.
phase microscope (phase-contrast microscope) a microscope that alters the phase relationships of the light passing through and that passing around the object, the contrast permitting visualization of the object without the necessity for staining or other special preparation.
scanning electron microscope (SEM) an electron microscope that produces a high magnification image of the surface of a metal-coated specimen by scanning an electron beam and building an image from the electrons reflected at each point.
simple microscope one that consists of a single lens.
slit lamp microscope a corneal microscope with a special attachment that permits examination of the endothelium on the posterior surface of the cornea.
stereoscopic microscope a binocular microscope modified to give a three-dimensional view of the specimen.
transmission electron microscope (TEM) an electron microscope that produces highly magnified images of ultrathin tissue sections or other specimens. An electron beam passes through the metal-impregnated specimen and is focused by magnetic lenses into an image.
x-ray microscope one in which x-rays are used instead of light, the image usually being reproduced on film.

e·lec·tron mi·cro·scope

a visual and photographic microscope in which electron beams with wavelengths thousands of times shorter than visible light are used instead of light, thereby allowing much greater resolution and magnification; in this technique the electrons are transmitted through a thin section of an embedded and dehydrated specimen maintained in a vacuum.

electron microscope

n.
Any of a class of microscopes that use electrons rather than visible light to produce magnified images, especially of objects having dimensions smaller than the wavelengths of visible light, with linear magnification approaching or exceeding a million (106).

electron microscope

an electronic instrument that scans cell and tissue sections with a beam of electrons instead of visible light. The specimen is stained with electron-opaque dyes. With its high magnification power, it creates an image that can be photographed or viewed on a fluorescent screen. Compare scanning electron microscope. See also electron microscopy.

e·lec·tron mi·cro·scope

(ĕ-lek'tron mī'krŏ-skōp)
A visual and photographic microscope in which electron beams with wavelengths shorter than visible light are used instead of light, thereby allowing much greater resolution and magnification; in this technique, the electrons are transmitted through a very thin section of an embedded and dehydrated specimen maintained in a vacuum.
Electron microscopeclick for a larger image
Fig. 143 Electron microscope . The movement of electrons through the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

electron microscope (EM)

a microscope that produces high-resolution images by the interaction of electrons with the specimen, the electrons being guided by electromagnetic lenses. There are two major types of EM:
  1. transmission electron microscope (TEM). The beam of electrons passes through the specimen of e.g. thinly-sectioned tissues, and is focused onto a flurorescent screen or a photographic film. Magnifications well in excess of × 250 000 are possible, with a RESOLUTION of less than 1 nm.
  2. scanning electron microscope (SEM). The specimen (which can be whole cells or tissues) is bombarded with high-energy electrons causing generation of low-power, secondary electrons from the specimen surface, which are collected to form an image of the surface. Magnifications in excess of × 100,000 are possible, with a resolution of about 5 nm.

e·lec·tron mi·cro·scope

(ĕ-lek'tron mī'krŏ-skōp)
Visual and photographic microscope in which electron beams with wavelengths thousands of times shorter than visible light are used instead of light, thereby allowing much greater resolution and magnification.

electron

any of the negatively charged particles arranged in orbits around the nucleus of an atom and determining all of the atom's physical and chemical properties except mass and radioactivity. Electrons flowing in a conductor constitute an electric current; when ejected from a radioactive substance, they constitute the beta particles.

electron acceptor
see oxidant.
electron beam
the stream of electrons that flows from the anode to the cathode in the x-ray tube and then interacts with the tungsten target to produce x-rays.
electron carrier
a molecule associated with membrane-bound proteins that accepts and transfers electrons.
electron donor
electron micrographs
photographic images of electron microscopic fields.
electron microscope
see electron microscope.
electron microscopy
technology of using an electron microscope.

microscope

an instrument used to obtain an enlarged image of small objects and reveal details of structure not otherwise distinguishable.

acoustic microscope
one using very high frequency ultrasound waves, which are focused on the object; the reflected beam is converted to an image by electronic processing.
binocular microscope
one with two eyepieces, permitting use of both eyes simultaneously.
bright-field microscope
the standard bench microscope used in histology and requiring stained tissue sections.
compound microscope
the standard laboratory microscope used in veterinary science; consists of a two lens system whereby the image formed by the system near the object (objective) is magnified by the one nearer the eye (eyepiece).
darkfield microscope
used for examining unstained, often living cells, in which light is only directed into the objective lens if it is deflected by an object in its path. The object is thus viewed as a white structure in an otherwise black (darkfield) background.
electron microscope
one using an electron beam of very short wavelength as the source of illumination. It has a resolving power of 2 nm (which is 100 times greater than with the light microscope). Includes the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope (below). See also immunoelectron microscopy.
fluorescence microscope
one used for the examination of specimens stained with fluorochromes or fluorochrome complexes, e.g. a fluorescein-labeled antibody, which fluoresces in ultraviolet light. See also fluorescence microscopy.
interference microscope
a microscope similar to the phase contrast microscope but delivers a three-dimensional image. Called also Nomarski interference phase microscope.
light microscope
used for examining unstained or stained particles or the cellular structure of tissues that have been cut into sections and stained. It has a resolving power of 0.2 μm. Modern light microscopes have an eyepiece and objective lenses which provide magnification, and a condenser beneath the stage which gathers and focuses light on the object being examined.
operating microscope
one designed for use in performance of delicate surgical procedures, e.g. on the middle ear, eye or small vessels of the heart.
phase microscope, phase-contrast microscope
a form of light microscope useful for examining living, unstained structures, including animal cells and bacteria, e.g. leptospira. The phase of the light wave passing through different structures in the cell, e.g. nucleus vs. thin part of the cytoplasm, is changed by different amounts and thereby provides contrast.
polarizing microscope
based on the phenomenon of birefringence; useful in the study of bone and muscle.
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
an electron microscope that produces a high-magnification image of the surface of a metal-coated specimen (shadow casting) by scanning an electron beam and building up an image from the electrons reflected at each point. Particularly useful for determining the three-dimensional structure of objects.
simple microscope
one that consists of a single lens.
specular microscope
one used in the examination of the corneal endothelium.
stereoscopic microscope
a binocular microscope modified to give a three-dimensional view of the specimen.
surgical microscope
see operating microscope (above).
transmission electron microscope, TEM
one that resembles an inverted light microscope in that the beam of electrons generated from a heated filament at the top of the instrument passes down through a column where it is focused by magnetic coils (lenses) and is differentially scattered when it passes through the specimen. The image is recorded either on a photographic plate or on a phosphorescent screen.
ultraviolet microscope
uses an ultraviolet light source; useful in histochemical studies; only photographic images are available.
References in periodicals archive ?
Grand View Research has segmented the global scanning electron microscopes market on the basis of end use and region:
Techniques such as macroscopic and microscopic inspection, scanning electron microscope evaluation and chemical analysis are useful in defect characterization.
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The Global Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Market Report 2015 is a professional and in-depth study that provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure.
The researchers then used a scanning electron microscope to determine how the cracks move through the different layers of dental tissue.
Sales of scanning probe microscopes and photoelectron spectrometers also grew, but field emission scanning electron microscope sales and mass spectrometer sales for dioxin analysis declined.
1 plasmid DNA were processed for transmission electron microscope analysis as described (7,8).
In preparation for the issuance of a new batch of the successful scanning electron microscope (SEM) magnification calibration artifacts, Reference Material (RM) 8090 and Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2090, NIST scientists have completed design of a new lithography photomask.
com/research/3226d45d/global_electron_mi) has announced the addition of the "Global Electron Microscope Market 2011-2015" report to their offering.

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