EtBr] adapted to overexpress the norA efflux pump
gene, and two clinical MRSA strains with increased efflux activity; S.
They reported broad and overlapped expression patterns for three drug efflux pumps
that are commonly implicated in chemotherapy resistance: the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and P-glycoprotein (PGP).
The compounds were also assessed for their potential activity as antibiotic modulators and efflux pump
point mutation and efflux pumps
were involved in OFL resistance.
Paradoxically, it is the infected macrophage itself that stimulates the efflux pumps
in the bacteria.
Though all these efflux pumps
have been studied well, epidemiological significance of these in the dissemination of drug resistance remains unexplored.
Bacterial efflux system and efflux pump
5) The results show that the efflux pump
(mefA gene) was the most prevalent mechanism (48.
An additive effect was observed when diosmetin (64 [mu]g/ml) was combined with ciprofloxacin (8[mu]g/ml) against the NorA efflux pump
The research team is working to discover the assembled structure of the entire three-part efflux pump
Antibiotics and inhibitors: Rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, oloxacin, norloxacin, kanamycin and efflux pump
inhibitors carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and verapamil were obtained from Sigma, USA.
An efflux pump
mechanism is unlikely; we showed no reduction in MICs in the presence of reserpine (online Appendix Table) and this organism was fully susceptible to penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and Triton X-100 (data not shown).