effect modifier

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ef·fect mod·i·fi·er

a factor that modifies the effect of a putative causal factor under study; for example, age is an effect modifier for many conditions.


a result produced by an action. The relationship between the two can be expressed in linear form. The total association between them may be the sum of a number of effects. The effect may be direct when it is exerted without being transmitted through intervening factors, or indirect when it is. It may also be a spurious effect when the observed changes are due to causes and correlations common to both.

additive effect
the combined effect produced by the action of two or more agents, being equal to the sum of their separate effects.
Coolidge effect
the stimulation of sexual behavior in a male animal upon exposure to a new female.
cumulative effect
cumulation action.
experimenter e's
demand characteristics; the characteristics supplied by the experimental subject in response to what it perceives are the demands of the experimenter.
effect modifier
a factor which modifies the effect of a causal factor under study. Called also interaction.
position effect
in genetics, the changed effect produced by alteration of the relative positions of various genes on the chromosomes.
pressure effect
the sum of the changes that are due to obstruction of tissue drainage by pressure.
side effect
a consequence other than that for which an agent is used, especially an adverse effect on another organ system.
References in periodicals archive ?
Along these lines, we have already explored the role of individual characteristics (age, sex, socioeconomic factors, and clinical characteristics) as effect modifiers of the association of PM [less than or equal to] 10 pm in aerodynamic diameter ([PM.
2]-mortality relationship for specific causes of death while exploring the latency of the effects and the potential confounding role by other pollutants and to evaluate sociodemographic features and chronic or acute medical conditions as potential effect modifiers.
The analyses examining subject characteristics as effect modifiers were repeated separately for deaths due to cardiovascular disease and deaths due to other primary causes.
To further explore the heterogeneity in the observed city-specific exposure-response associations, we investigated several city descriptive variables as potential effect modifiers that could alter the shape of the curve.
This database also allows a comprehensive and structured approach at the second stage of the analysis, in which we explore the role of effect modifiers in explaining the heterogeneity in the shape of the exposure-response relation of air pollution and mortality across cities.
Little is known about the role of these comorbidities as effect modifiers for the effects of air pollution.
Once our baseline risks were established, we examined three classes of potential effect modifiers.
These are substantial increases in each of the postulated effect modifiers, but they are associated with no noticeable change in the estimated [PM.
Ways to better incorporate effect modifiers were the topic of a meeting hosted by the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC, on 18-19 April 2012.
According to Schwartz, the number and diversity of known effect modifiers continues to grow.
Because of the large number of potential effect modifiers, and the constraints that will be imposed by incorporating them into the design, the choice of which factors to focus on will necessarily be limited and will inevitably require trade-offs.
The social-environmental factors measured in neurotoxicity studies, whether subsequently modeled as potential confounders or effect modifiers, have generally consisted of individual-or family-level characteristics.