eczema vaccinatum


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eczema

 [ek´zĕ-mah]
1. any superficial inflammatory process involving primarily the epidermis, marked early by redness, itching, minute papules and vesicles, weeping, oozing, and crusting, and later by scaling, lichenification, and often pigmentation.
2. atopic dermatitis.

Eczema is a common allergic reaction in children but it also occurs in adults, usually in a more severe form. Childhood eczema often begins in infancy, the rash appearing on the face, neck, and folds of elbows and knees. It may disappear by itself when an offending food is removed from the diet, or it may become more extensive and in some instances cover the entire surface of the body. Severe eczema can be complicated by skin infections. Childhood eczema may persist for several years or return after the child is older. Persons suffering from childhood eczema may develop another allergic condition later, most often hay fever or asthma.
Cause and Treatment. Eczema is sometimes caused by an allergic sensitivity to foods such as milk, fish, or eggs. Inhalant allergens such as dust and pollens rarely cause eczema. Treatment involves the use of soothing baths, moisturizing creams, topical steroids, and oral antihistamines to alleviate itching. See also allergy.
eczema herpe´ticum disseminated herpes simplex (see kaposi's varicelliform eruption).
eczema margina´tum tinea cruris.
eczema vaccina´tum disseminated vaccinia (see kaposi's varicelliform eruption).

eczema vaccinatum

The spreading of vaccinia virus to localized areas of skin, or to the entire body, in patients recently vaccinated against smallpox. This reaction is a rare complication of smallpox vaccination, occurring in about 40 per million of newly vaccinated individuals. It usually occurs in people with pre-existing eczema and is occasionally fatal.
See also: eczema

Kaposi,

Moritz (born Moritz Kohn), Hungarian dermatologist in Austria, 1837-1902.
Kaposi sarcoma - a multifocal malignant neoplasm. Synonym(s): multiple idiopathic hemorrhagic sarcoma
Kaposi varicelliform eruption - a rare complication of vaccinia superimposed on atopic dermatitis, with generalized vesicles and papulovesicles and high fever. Synonym(s): eczema vaccinatum
References in periodicals archive ?
People with active atopic dermatitis (eczema), or who have outgrown it, and those with whom they currently live cannot receive smallpox vaccinations because of the risk of eczema vaccinatum.
While uncommon, eczema vaccinatum can develop when atopic dermatitis patients are given the smallpox vaccine or come into close personal contact with people who recently received the vaccine.
Such spread could manifest as an inadvertent infection or, in more severe fashion, as eczema vaccinatum or progressive vaccinia.
new cases (April 5-13) Adverse events Suspected + Probable (ss) Eczema vaccinatum -- ** -- Erythema multiforme major (Stevens- -- -- Johnson syndrome) Fetal vaccinia -- -- Generalized vaccinia 1 -- Inadvertent inoculation (nonocular) 7 -- Myocarditis/Pericarditis 3 -- Ocular vaccinia -- -- Postvaccinial encephalitis or -- -- encephalomyelitis Progressive vaccinia -- -- Pyogenic infection of vaccination -- -- site No.
new cases (March 31-April 4) Adverse events Suspected + Probable (ss) Confirmed (n) Eczema vaccinatum -- ** -- -- Erythema multiforme major -- -- NA ++ (stevens-Johnson syndrome) Fetal vaccinia -- -- -- Generalized vaccinia -- -- -- Inadvertent inoculation, 5 -- -- nonocular Myocarditis/pericarditis 2 1 -- Ocular vaccinia -- -- -- Postvaccinial encephalitis or -- -- NA encephalomyelitis Progressive vaccinia -- -- -- Pyogenic infection of -- -- -- vaccination site Total no.
progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum, post-vaccinial encephalitis, or encephalomyelitis) have been reported among civilians.
new cases (March 11-30) Adverse events Suspected + Probable (ss) Eczema vaccinatum -- ** -- Erythema multiforme major (Stevens- -- -- Johnson syndrome) Fetal vaccinia -- -- Generalized vaccinia 5 -- Inadvertent inoculation, nonocular 14 -- Myocarditis/Pericarditis 1 3 Ocular vaccinia -- -- Postvaccinial encephalitis or -- -- encephalomyelitis Progressive vaccinia -- -- Pyogenic infection of vaccination -- -- site No.
new cases (March 4-10) Potentially life-threatening events Eczema vaccinatum -- + -- Erythema multiforme major (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) -- -- Fetal vaccinia -- -- Post-vaccinial encephalitis or encephalomyelitis -- -- Progressive vaccinia -- -- Moderate-to-severe events (ss) Generalized vaccinia -- -- Inadvertent inoculation, non-ocular 1 2 Ocular vaccinia -- -- Pyogenic infection of vaccination site -- -- Other events of concern No.
new cases (February 25-March 3) Adverse events Suspected Probable Potentially life-threatening events Eczema vaccinatum -- + -- Erythema multiforme major (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) -- -- Fetal vaccinia -- -- Post-vaccinial encephalitis or encephalomyelitis -- -- Progressive vaccinia -- -- Moderate-to-severe events Generalized vaccinia -- -- Inadvertent inoculation, non-ocular -- -- Ocular vaccinia -- 2 (ss) Pyogenic infection of vaccination site -- -- Other events of concern No.
new cases Adverse events Suspected Probable Potentially life-threatening events Eczema Vaccinatum -- + -- Erythema multiforme major (Stevens- Johnson syndrome) -- -- Fetal vaccinia -- -- Post-vaccinial encephalitis or -- -- encephalomyelitis Progressive vaccinia -- -- Moderate-to-severe events Generalized vaccinia 1 -- Inadvertent inoculation, non-ocular -- -- Ocular vaccinia -- -- Pyogenic infection of vaccination site -- -- Other events of concern Other serious adverse events (ss) 1 Other nonserious adverse events (n) 16 Vaccinia immune globulin release -- Vaccinia transmission to contacts -- Total no.
cases Adverse events Suspected Probable Potentially life-threatening events Eczema vaccinatum -- + -- Erythema multiforme major -- -- (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) Fetal vaccinia -- -- Post-vaccinial encephalitis or -- -- encephalomyelities Progressive vaccinia -- -- Moderate-to-severe events Generalized vaccinia -- -- Inadvertent inoculation, non- -- -- ocular Ocular vaccinia -- -- Pyogenic infection of vaccination -- -- site No.
TABLE Adverse events after smallpox vaccination that are recommended to be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and to state health departments * Eczema vaccinatum Erythema multiforme major or Stevens-Johnson syndrome Fetal vaccinia Generalized vaccinia Inadvertent inoculation Ocular vaccinia Post-vaccinal encephalitis or encephalomyelitis Progressive vaccinia Pyogenic infection of vaccination site Vaccinia transmission to contacts Vaccination of persons with a contraindication to vaccination Other serious adverse events (i.