The lamellate imbricate basal and echinate
apical scale microornamentation pattern of Pantherophis guttatus, P.
95-100): exine echinate, with long spines (4-5 [micro]m length), spines usually with compact tip, tectum very perforate.
2003; Telleria, 2008): exine echinate, with short spines (less than 3 [micro]m length), spines with apical channel, tectum very perforate.
In contrast, in the genera of Mutisioideae with echinate pollen, the spines are short when compared with the overall size of the pollen grain.
Arctoteae, Lactuceae, Liabeae, and Vernonieae have echinate and echinolophate pollen, with caveate exine in Arctoteae and most Lactuceae, and an ecaveate exine in Liabeae and Vernonieae (Skvarla et al.
They are nonlophate and echinate, the spines many, dense, conical with a long tapering point, up to 8 [micro]m long, the bases slightly swollen.
The grains are echinate, with more than 100 spines distributed densely and evenly across the grain.
The grains are echinate, with 48-63 spines, distributed evenly across the grain.
Isoetes chubutiana produces echinate
microspores similar to those
Of the 52 collections examined, 21 had echinate macroomamentation; 19, aculeate; 6, cristate; 5, psilate; and 1, laevigate (Appendix I).
velata, the distal surfaces are densely echinate, but the proximal surface essentially lacks ornamentation (Fig.
Perhaps the most striking form of macroornamentation is echinate.