echimidine

echimidine

one of the toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Echium plantagineum.
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The standard substances for the tested PAs echimidine, erucifoline, erucifoline-N-oxide, europine, europine-N-oxide, heliotrine, heliotrine-N-oxide, intermedine, jacobine, jacobine-N-oxide, lasiocarpine, lasiocarpine-Noxide, lycopsamine, monocrotaline, monocrotaline-N-oxide, retrorsine, retrorsine-N-oxide, senecionine, senecionine-N-oxide, seneciphylline, seneciphylline-N-oxide, senkirkine, and trichodesmine were acquired from PhytoLab, Germany.
However, six of 13 samples examined were found to contain echimidine and therefore not to be Symphytum officinale (common comfrey), including three of six specifically so labeled.
hispidissima yielded echimidine and monocrotaline (Gamila et al.