an aggregation of cells specialized to secrete or excrete materials not related to their ordinary metabolic needs. Glands are divided into two main groups, endocrine and exocrine. adj., adj
The endocrine glands
, or ductless glands, discharge their secretions (hormones) directly into the blood; they include the adrenal, pituitary, thyroid, and parathyroid glands, the islands of Langerhans in the pancreas, the gonads, the thymus, and the pineal body. The exocrine glands
discharge through ducts opening on an external or internal surface of the body; they include the salivary, sebaceous, and sweat glands, the liver, the gastric glands, the pancreas, the intestinal, mammary, and lacrimal glands, and the prostate. The lymph nodes
are sometimes called lymph glands but are not glands in the usual sense.
Classification of glands according to mode of secretion. From Applegate, 2000.
one made up of one or more acini
(oval or spherical sacs).
apocrine gland one whose discharged secretion contains part of the secreting cells.
areolar g's Montgomery's glands.
axillary g's lymph nodes in the axilla.
Bartholin g's two small mucus-secreting glands, one on each side in the lower pole of the labium majus and connected to the surface by a duct lined with transitional cells, which opens just external to the hymenal ring. Their exact function is not clear but they are believed to secrete mucus to moisten the vestibule during sexual excitement. Called also major vestibular glands.
bronchial g's seromucous glands in the mucosa and submucosa of the bronchial walls.
Brunner's g's glands in the submucosa of the duodenum that secrete intestinal juice; called also duodenal glands.
buccal g's seromucous glands on the inner surface of the cheeks; called also genal glands.
bulbocavernous g's (bulbourethral g's) two glands embedded in the substance of the sphincter of the male urethra, posterior to the membranous part of the urethra; their secretion lubricates the urethra; called also Cowper's glands.
cardiac g's mucus-secreting glands of the cardiac part (cardia) of the stomach.
celiac g's lymph nodes anterior to the abdominal aorta.
ceruminous g's cerumin-secreting glands in the skin of the external auditory canal.
1. the lymph nodes of the neck.
2. compound clefts in the wall of the uterine cervix.
ciliary g's sweat glands that have become arrested in their development, situated at the edges of the eyelids; called also Moll's glands.
circumanal g's specialized sweat and sebaceous glands around the anus; called also Gay's glands.
Cobelli's g's mucous glands in the esophageal mucosa just above the cardia.
compound gland one made up of a number of smaller units whose excretory ducts combine to form ducts of progressively higher order.
Cowper's g's bulbourethral glands.
ductless g's endocrine glands.
duodenal g's Brunner's glands.
Ebner's g's serous glands at the back of the tongue near the taste buds.
endocrine g's see endocrine glands.
glands that discharge their secretions through ducts opening on internal or external surfaces of the body; see gland
fundic g's (fundus g's) numerous tubular glands in the mucosa of the fundus and body of the stomach that contain the cells that produce acid and pepsin.
gastric g's the secreting glands of the stomach, including the fundic, cardiac, and pyloric glands.
Gay's g's circumanal glands.
glossopalatine g's mucous glands at the posterior end of the smaller sublingual glands.
holocrine gland one whose discharged secretion contains the entire secreting cells.
straight tubular glands in the mucous membrane of the intestines, in the small intestine opening between the bases of the villi, and containing argentaffin cells. Called also crypts
or glands of Lieberkühn
jugular gland a lymph node behind the clavicular insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
Krause's gland an accessory lacrimal gland deep in the conjunctival connective tissue, mainly near the upper fornix.
lingual g's the seromucous glands on the surface of the tongue.
lingual g's, anterior seromucous glands near the apex of the tongue.
2. the male urethral glands.
major vestibular g's Bartholin glands.
a specialized gland of the skin of female mammals, which secretes milk for the nourishment of their young; it exists in a rudimentary state in the male. See also breast
meibomian g's sebaceous follicles between the cartilage and conjunctiva of the eyelids. Called also tarsal glands.
merocrine gland one whose discharged secretion contains no part of the secreting cells.
1. seromucous glands.
2. glands that have both exocrine and endocrine portions.
Moll's g's ciliary glands.
Montgomery's g's sebaceous glands in the mammary areola; called also areolar glands.
mucous g's glands that secrete mucus.
olfactory g's small mucous glands in the olfactory mucosa; called also Bowman's glands.
peptic g's gastric glands that secrete pepsin.
preputial g's small sebaceous glands of the corona of the penis and the inner surface of the prepuce, which secrete smegma; called also Littre's glands and Tyson's glands.
pyloric g's the mucin-secreting glands of the pyloric part of the stomach.
a type of holocrine gland
of the corium that secretes an oily material (sebum
) into the hair follicles.
Glands: The relationship of the hair follicle, eccrine and apocrine sweat glands and sebaceous glands. From Copstead, 1995.
sentinel gland an enlarged lymph node, considered to be pathognomonic of some pathologic condition elsewhere.
seromucous g's glands that are both serous and mucous.
serous gland a gland that secretes a watery albuminous material, commonly but not always containing enzymes.
simple gland one with a nonbranching duct.
Skene's g's the largest of the female urethral glands, which open into the urethral orifice; they are regarded as homologous with the prostate. Called also paraurethral ducts.
solitary g's solitary follicles.
sublingual gland a salivary gland on either side under the tongue.
) a salivary gland on the inner side of each ramus of the mandible
any gland affected by a secretion or other stimulus from another gland, such as those affected by the secretions of the pituitary gland
tarsal g's meibomian glands.
tubular gland any gland made up of or containing a tubule or tubules.
unicellular gland a single cell that functions as a gland, e.g., a goblet cell.
urethral g's mucous glands in the wall of the urethra; in the male, called also Littre's glands.
simple tubular glands found throughout the thickness and extent of the endometrium
; they become enlarged during the premenstrual period.
vesical g's mucous glands sometimes found in the wall of the urinary bladder, especially in the area of the trigone.
vulvovaginal g's Bartholin's glands.
Waldeyer's g's glands in the attached edge of the eyelid.
Weber's g's the tubular mucous glands of the tongue.
an aggregation of cells specialized to secrete or excrete materials not related to their ordinary metabolic needs. Glands are divided into two main groups, endocrine and exocrine.
Specific glands will be found under their individual names.
accessory genital g's
glands other than the gonads, intimately associated with the reproductive organs, especially of the male, in which they include vesicular glands (seminal vesicles), ampullary glands, prostate, bulbourethral glands, coagulating glands. Called also accessory
accessory sex gland
see accessory genital glands (above).
one made up of one or more oval or spherical sacs (acini).
one whose secretory units consist of saclike dilatations with a distinct lumen.
gland composed of a mixture of alveolar and tubular structures.
fusiform enlargement of the deferent duct, as it passes across the bladder wall, due to proliferation of glandular tissue in the regionally folded mucosa.
small glands in the anal columnar mucosal cells plus larger and more numerous circumanal glands in the surrounding skin.
one whose discharged secretion contains part of the secreting cells.
avian stomach g's
mucosal and submucosal glands in the stomach of birds; the submucosal glands are thought to secrete both acidic and enzymic substances.
glands which contain a mixture of serous and mucus-secreting cells found in the bronchial mucosa.
buccal salivary glands lying in the submucosal tissues of the cheek and sometimes the orbit and whose ducts secrete directly into the buccal cavity.
one of the three (the other two are the pyloric and proper gastric or fundic) types of gland in the stomach wall and capable of secretion into the gastric juices; this gland secretes only mucus.
cutaneous, 'marking' glands found on the medial aspect of the carpus in the pig; although present in both sexes are thought to be used to mark mated females.
large glands in the lips of cats; used to mark territory either directly by the familiar fawning head rub, or indirectly by rubbing the secretion of the gland onto the fur during grooming.
cerumin-secreting glands in the skin of the external auditory canal.
one made up of a number of smaller units whose excretory ducts combine to form ducts of progressively higher order.
deep (lacrimal) gland, gland of the third eyelid
an additional lacrimal gland found in the skin of the cartilaginous support of the third eyelid.
a gland that secretes its product without loss of cytoplasm, such as the sweat glands on dog footpads or human skin.
or ductless glands, discharge their secretions (hormones) directly into the blood; they include the adrenal, pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid glands, the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, the gonads and the pineal body.
discharge through ducts opening on an external or internal surface of the body; include the salivary, sebaceous and sweat glands, the liver, the gastric glands, the pancreas, the intestinal, mammary and lacrimal glands, and the prostate.
fundic g's, fundus g's
numerous, tubular glands in the mucosa of the stomach that contain the cells which produce acid and pepsin. According to the species, they are usually found in the body and occasionally in the fundus.
branched, tubuloalveolar serous glands which open into large lingual papillae.
glandlike body, e.g. the spleen, that takes a part in blood formation.
small node resembling lymph node but red or brown in color and containing blood sinuses instead of or alongside lymph spaces. Common in ruminants and some rodents and typically located along the large arteries.
fold on synovial surface regarded as secretor of synovia.
one whose discharged secretion contains the entire secreting cells as in sebaceous glands.
a scent gland found caudomedial to the horn base in goats of both sexes; increase in size and activity in breeding season. Produce the pungent secretion so characteristic of goats, described best as the distilled essence of reek.
special sebaceous glands which line the infraorbital sinus (pouch) in sheep.
the collection of special tubular and sebaceous glands which line the inguinal pouch (sinus) in sheep.
special sebaceous and tubular glands in the interdigital sinus (pouch) in sheep.
microscopic tubular glands which lie in the mucosa of the gut and secrete intestinal juice into the lumen of the small intestine.
minor salivary glands; mucous in small ruminants, serous in others.
lateral nasal g's
a local glandular thickening of the mucosa lining the maxillary sinus of dogs and some other species; this tissue is largely responsible for the continually wet nose of the dog.
minor salivary glands, mixed serous and mucous in cattle and horses, mucous in sheep, cats, dogs.
lymph nodes; they are not glands in the true sense.
male sex gland
, accessory genital glands (above).
the milk-secreting organ of female mammals, existing also in a rudimentary state in the male. See also udder
mandibular salivary g's
major salivary glands; large and with long salivary ducts to deliver secretion into the mouth.
hemolymph gland having a marrow-like tissue.
a focal specialization of glands in the skin of the pig, caudal to the mandibular symphysis. It is a round raised nevus-like structure composed of sebaceous and apocrine glands with coarse bristles.
one whose discharged secretion contains no part of the secreting cells.
1. seromucous glands.
2. glands that have both exocrine and endocrine portions.
molar salivary gland
unique gland in felids; predominantly mucoid cells with a few serous.
glands which occur as sheets of epithelial cells with secretory function, e.g. gastric and intestinal mucosae.
multilobular proventricular g's
in the glandular stomach of the bird these glands appear to secrete both pepsin and hydrochloric acid.
small glands scattered throughout the nasal mucosa.
seromucous glands located beneath the olfactory epithelium; their secretion keeps the local mucosa moist.
palatine salivary gland
a minor salivary gland containing serous or mucoid or mixed secretory cells.
see meibomian gland (above).
parotid salivary gland
a major salivary gland usually containing serous secretory cells; in carnivores there may also be a few mucus-secreting cells.
see uropygial gland (below).
sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands within the prepuce; sometimes aggregated into discrete sacs (musk deer) or diverticula (pigs); their secretions combine with desquamated epithelial cells to produce smegma.
mucous glands containing lymphoid tissue located in the proctodeum of male and female birds.
proper gastric gland
the main digestive glands of the stomach; found in different parts of the stomach in different species but usually in the body of the stomach; secrete pepsin and hydrochloric acid; open into microscopic pits and clefts.
secrete pheromones which play such a large part in olfactory communication between animals. Located in a variety of places, e.g. in the elephant they are behind the eyes, in the musk deer they are in the belly wall.
an enlarged lymph node, considered to be pathognomonic of some pathological condition elsewhere.
the caudal portion of the uterus in the female bird in which the egg is held while the shell is secreted.
one with a nonbranching duct.
sine ductibus gland
sperm host gland
in the vagina of birds; store and nourish visiting spermatozoa which are released when oviposition occurs.
hemolymph glands having more of the splenic type of tissue.
sublingual salivary gland
a major salivary gland; predominantly mucous cells in ruminants, swine, rodents; mixed serous and mucoid cells in small carnivores and horses.
a group of sebaceous glands in the intermandibular space in cats.
submucosal intestinal g's
simple, branched, tubuloacinar glands; mucous in ruminants and dogs, mixed serous and mucous in cats and serous in horses and dogs; in carnivores and small ruminants confined to the proximal or middle parts of the duodenum, extend to jejunum in large ruminants, horses, pigs.
submucosal stomach gland
large, numerous, branched, compound, tubular gland in birds; thought to secrete both acid and enzymatic products.
sudoriferous g's, sudoriparous g's
scent producing cells found only in dogs and cats; in dogs confined to a small area at the base of the tail, in cats extend along the dorsal surface of most of the tail; called also tail gland.
see supracaudal gland (above).
one specifically affected by a hormone.
see meibomian gland (above).
third eyelid gland
a secondary lacrimal gland; a second, deeper gland occurs in pigs and cattle.
any gland made up of or containing a tubule or tubules.
tissue from the fourth pharyngeal pouch which in mammals is absorbed into the thyroid gland. In fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds the tissue forms separate glands containing calcitonin.
a single cell that functions as a gland, e.g. a goblet cell.
accessory sex glands in males; secrete serous and mucoid liquids into the urethra to nourish and activate spermatozoa.
the oil or preen gland of birds is attached to the tail and consists of a bilobed simple tubular, holocrine gland.
major and minor mucus-producing glands in the vestibule of the vulva.
small tubuloalveolar glands in subconjunctival tissue above the upper border of the tarsal plate; open onto conjunctiva.
g's of Zeis, Zeis g's
prominent sebaceous sweat glands on the eyelid margins, associated with hair follicles of cilia. See also external hordeolum
two large bodies included with the paraganglia along the abdominal aorta.
zygomatic salivary gland
a unique salivary gland in small carnivores; contains mainly mucous cells with a few serous cells; a modified dorsal buccal gland.