The analgesic effect of our electroacupuncture could be due to the release of endogenous opiates such as dynorphins
, which is primarily released with high frequency electroacupuncture.
The preferred ligands of the mu receptor are beta-endorphin and enkephalin, those of the delta receptor are the leu- and met-enkephalines, and dynorphins
A and B are those preferred by kappa receptors.
Similarly, receptors of other neuropeptides like somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, galanin, dynorphin
, enkephalin, substance P, cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, hormones such as ghrelin, angiotensins, corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, oxytocin, and vasopressin involved in epilepsy .
Activation of the dynorphin
/[kappa] receptor system can produce analgesic actions similar to other opioids but also actions that are opposite to those of [mu] opioid receptors in the motivational domain, where dynorphins
produce aversive, dysphoric-like effects in animals and humans (Shippenberg et al.
Thus, deregulation of noradrenaline, dynorphin
, vasopressin, orexin, and substance P all appear to play a role in alcohol dependence (Koob 2008).
The main groups of opioid peptides, enkephalins, dynorphins
and beta-endorphin, are derived from proenkephalin, prodynorphin and proopiomelanocortin, respectively (20).
In addition to the modulating effects of GABA and serotonin, the release of endogenous opioids, b-endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins
will down-regulate the excitatory mechanisms that negatively affect the immune system.
Goldstein, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, is a neuroscientist who is credited for the discovery of the dynorphins
and whose research also includes laboratory studies on opioid receptors;
The three main classes of endogenous opioids are endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins
The team of researchers working with Zimmer tested the exact impact of dynorphins
on the brain using mice whose gene for the formation of this substance had been disabled.
There are three major classes of endogenous opioid peptides: endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins
Research suggests that this response is mediated by the stress-evoked release of dynorphins
, the "feel bad" brain signals.