Enkephalin has an analgesic effect to the brain and spinal cord, endorphin in the brain while dynorphin
to the spinal cord.
Products of prodynorphin processing include dynorphin
A(1-8), and dynorphin
Striatal enkephalin and dynorphin
opioid systems mediate reward and negative affect, respectively, and are relevant to addiction disorders.
TENS has resulted in increased levels of Y-amino-butyric acid (GABA), endorphin, encephalin and dynorphin
in spinal cord (41,42).
37) Other neuroendocrine substances and structures involved include, but not limited to, serotonin, norepinephrine, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, opioid peptide receptors, [gamma]-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems, dynorphin
, acetylcholine, corticotrophin releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and corticosterone.
Thus, deregulation of noradrenaline, dynorphin
, vasopressin, orexin, and substance P all appear to play a role in alcohol dependence (Koob 2008).
Immunoreactivity to dynorphin
, an endogenous opioid, is also increased in regions of histopathologic damage, and decreased blood flow in rat brain following fluid-percussion TBI .
Kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the ewe express both dynorphin
A and neurokinin B.
reduces voltage-dependent calcium conductance of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons.
Instead of controlling an immunity-related gene, as Penninger's team expected, DREAM appears to suppress the production of a natural opioid called dynorphin
NTI is seeking to out-license Dynorphin
A, a human peptide previously tested as an analgesic agent.
The effect of food and water deprivation on post-stress analgesia in mice and levels of beta-endorphin and dynorphin
in blood plasma and hypothalmus.