retinoscopy

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retinoscopy

 [ret″ĭ-nos´kah-pe]
an objective method of investigating, diagnosing, and evaluating refractive errors of the eye, by projection of a beam of light into the eye and observation of the movement of the illuminated area on the retinal surface and of the refraction by the eye of the emergent rays. Called also pupilloscopy and shadow test.
book retinoscopy a type in which the patient focuses on reading a book; commonly used with children.
dynamic retinoscopy a type in which the patient fixes the gaze on a target at a near distance; accommodation is active.
mem retinoscopy a type of dynamic retinoscopy in which the fixation target is a series of letters on the retinoscope, or a card with letters at a normal reading distance.
Nott retinoscopy a type of dynamic retinoscopy in which the fixation target is 40 cm from the eye; the test is first done with the object farther away than the target distance, and then continued while moving it towards the patient until neutrality is observed.
static retinoscopy a type in which the patient fixes the gaze on a target at a long distance in order to relax accommodation.

ret·i·nos·co·py

(ret'i-nos'kŏ-pē),
A method of determining errors of refraction by illuminating the retina and observing the rays of light emerging from the eye.
[retino- + G. skopeō, to view]

retinoscopy

/ret·i·nos·co·py/ (ret″ĭ-nos´kah-pe) observation of the pupil under a beam of light projected into the eye, as a means of determining refractive errors.

retinoscopy

(rĕt′n-ŏs′kə-pē)
n. pl. retinosco·pies
Medical examination and analysis of the refractive properties of the eye. Also called skiascopy.

ret′i·no·scop′ic (-ə-skŏp′ĭk) adj.

retinoscopy

[ret′inos′kəpē]
Etymology: L, rete, net; Gk, skopein, to view
a procedure for examining the eyes for possible errors of refraction. The examiner shines a light into the eye through the pupillary opening and notes the movements of reflex from the fundus, which will vary with the type of refractive error. The movements indicate the types of lenses needed to neutralize the refractive errors. Also called shadow test.

ret·i·nos·co·py

(ret'i-nos'kŏ-pē)
A method of determining errors of refraction by illuminating the retina and observing the rays of light emerging from the eye.
Synonym(s): shadow test, skiascopy.
[retino- + G. skopeō, to view]

retinoscopy

An objective method of quantitative determination of optical errors in the eye so that correcting glasses may be prescribed.

Cuignet,

Ferdinand L.J., 19th century French ophthalmologist.
Cuignet method - skiascopy. Synonym(s): retinoscopy

retinoscopy (ret) 

The determination of the refractive state of the eye by means of a retinoscope. Syn. skiascopy; shadow test. See chromoretinoscopy.
dynamic retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed with the patient fixating binocularly a near object such as a letter, a word, or a picture mounted on, or held close to, the retinoscope and wearing the distance correction. No working distance lens power is subtracted or added to the finding since the plane of regard is at the same distance as the retinoscope. Syn. book retinoscopy (this term is restricted to the case when the patient is reading a text); cognitive retinoscopy (when the patient fixates a single letter or reads some words); near point retinoscopy. See lag of accommodation; objective accommodation; MEM retinoscopy; Mohindra's technique of retinoscopy; static retinoscopy.
MEM retinoscopy A type of dynamic retinoscopy in which the retinoscope is held in the same plane as the near fixation target and lenses are interposed very briefly in front of one eye, while the other eye fixates the target. The aim of the method is to estimate the fundus reflex motion without disturbing the accommodative stance, that is, by leaving each lens in front of one eye for less than one second, until the neutral point is achieved. The results in non-presbyopic subjects generally show a lag of accommodation of 0 to +0.75 D. Note: MEM is an acronym of 'monocular estimate method'.
Mohindra's technique of retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed in a darkened room at 50 cm (20 inches) with the patient fixating the retinoscope light monocularly (the other eye being occluded). Distance retinoscopic refraction is derived by adding −1.00 D (to take into account the working distance and the state of accommodation in the dark) to the value found by near retinoscopy. The technique is used in paediatric optometry. Syn. monocular near retinoscopy. See resting state of accommodation; dynamic retinoscopy; MEM retinoscopy.
near point retinoscopy See dynamic retinoscopy; Mohindra's technique of.
static retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed with the patient fixating a target at distance or with accommodation paralysed.

retinoscopy

an objective method of investigating, diagnosing and evaluating refractive errors of the eye, by projection of a beam of light into the eye and observation of the movement of the illuminated area on the retina surface and of the refraction by the eye of the emergent rays. Called also pupilloscopy, shadow test, skiametry and skiascopy.