downstream


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Related to downstream: upstream

downstream

/down·stream/ (doun´strēm) a region of DNA or RNA that is located to the 3′ side of a gene or region of interest.
Cardiology The direction of blood flow, specifically in vessels flowing from the heart
Molecular biology A position on a molecule of interest—e.g., protein or DNA—that is ‘beyond’ or in front of a reference point; the term downstream differs according to the system involved

downstream

In genetics, at a stage in the sequence of processes in the expression of a gene that is nearer the final protein product than any stage in the direction of the DNA. The term is also used to mean in the direction of the 3'-end of a chain of bases in DNA (see PHOSPHODIESTER BOND). In both cases the opposite sense is called ‘upstream’.

downstream

(of a LOCUS on a DNA MOLECULE) relating to a position in the direction in which TRANSCRIPTION occurs, often after the transcription start site in DNA and towards the last coding region to be transcribed. By convention the DNA sequence of genes is shown from 5' (left) to 3' (right) so that ifX is on the 3' side of Y it is described as being downstream of Y. Compare UPSTREAM.

downstream

a term used in molecular biology to describe nucleotides of a nucleic acid molecule which lie in the 3′ direction from a particular reference point, such as the site of initiation of transcription. See also upstream.
References in periodicals archive ?
Tellingly, chromatography products were joined at the top by disposable purification products (also 36 percent), supporting the industry's need for advances in downstream processing.
GBI Research, the leading business intelligence provider, has released its latest research, Downstream Processing in Biopharmaceuticals Adoption of Disposable Technology at Improved Economies of Scale to Optimize Production Efficiency and Cost-effectiveness, which provides key data, information and analysis of the Contract Manufacturing Organization (CMO) industry, and the downstream processing and reagent market.
Downstream equipment for pipe, tubing and profiles, including complete extrusion systems with product tooling, sizing, cooling, cutoff and product-handling equipment.
A variation on downstream upgrades has involved the use of bulk analyzers at shredding facilities to conduct quality and chemistry assessments of the ferrous scrap to be marketed.
On each 10-day excursion, the team surveyed dozens of sandbars and beaches between Glen Canyon Dam and the mouth of the Little Colorado River, a tributary that meets the Colorado about 125 km downstream of the dam.
Computer simulation will not eliminate die trials, but the starting point for the first trial is expected to be much closer to the final design, particularly if the simulation correctly identifies designs that handle subtle problems like distortion downstream from the die.
However, the question remains why the retron sequence downstream of SGI1 in serotype Typhimurium DT 104 and DT 120 strains (7) is not present downstream of SGI1 in other serotypes.
One factor: Salmon spawn (reproduce) in freshwater upstream and make their way downstream to live in salty seawater--before swimming upstream again to spawn.
Consequently, the loop bandwidth of the repeater's PLL must be low enough so that any jitter that is transferred is at a frequency that can be reliably tracked by the downstream receiver's CDR.
Health care providers and insurance administrators are increasingly alarmed by downstream risk, most significantly with the financial stability of providers.
ISSUES related to the aluminium downstream will be inescapable when CEOs and senior officials of regional aluminium smelters and firms relying on the smelters for their raw materials meet at the Arab Aluminium (Arabal) conference taking place in Bahrain this month (November 25-27).
This comprises upstream and downstream aluminium industry, he told the Bahrain News Agency (BNA) on the sidelines of Arabal 2014.