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I have discovered that glass, and all other substances that have not the property of double refraction, are capable of receiving it from mechanical pressure, and that a compressing force always produces the structure which gives the exterior fringes in crystallized glass, while a dilating force produces the structure which develops the interior fringes" ([24], p.
9) As Brewster notes, Huygen's explanation of double refraction is more elegant than Newton's.
The double refraction occurs when a ray of light enters the crystal and, due to calcite's unique optical properties, the ray is split into fast and slow beams.
This Ibn Sahl had successfully treated the phenomenon of double refraction in a sphere, which led him to treat the subject of lenses, and allowed Kamal al-Din al-Farisi (d.